Complications and prognosis vary widely and depend upon the underlying etiology and the type of treatment administered.
Regarding the main primary tumors of the jugular foramen, complications result from persistent paralysis of cranial nerves IX, X, and XI. Aspiration pneumonia is the most dangerous complication of this syndrome (65). Hoarseness and shoulder weakness are other complications.
For primary tumors, depending upon their extension, the inner ear, facial nerve, and eighth nerve are at risk. Other potential life-threatening complications include CSF leak and meningitis.
When preoperative embolization is used, stroke is another potential complication; however, this procedure is considered to be overall a safe and useful adjunct to surgery (66). Due to the benign nature of the common primary tumors, the overall prognosis is good if local control can be achieved.
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