FIGURE 1 Linear gingival erythema Source Courtesy of the International AIDS SocietyUSA From Refs 3 4

Linear gingival erythema. Also known as HIV gingivitis, a fiery red linear discoloration of the gingival margin can be seen in HIV disease, even without significant plaque formation (Fig. 1). Patients complain of spontaneous bleeding or are asymptomatic. Referral to an HIV dental specialist is recommended and usually involves debridement, local care, and systemic antibiotics.

Necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis and stomatitis. Rarely encountered in the asymptomatic HIV-infected individual, this form of periodontal disease occurs in up to 50% of AIDS patients (11). Halitosis is a common complaint, along with severe pain and bleeding. On exam, gingival necrosis of the tips of the interdental papillae with formation of ulcers is found (Fig. 2).

Rapid progression can lead to loss of periodontal tissue and also bone with loosening and loss of teeth. Lesions can resemble the rapidly destructive lesions of noma, as are seen

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