The head and neck complications of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) described in this chapter may also be encountered in non-HIV-infected persons; however, widespread involvement, atypical features, and poor clinical response to treatment are often seen in the context of HIV infection (1) trend that has not significantly changed after the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (2-4). Therefore, the threshold for testing for the presence of HIV infection should be low in cases where clinical suspicion arises; this scenario can present itself in the emergency department, the outpatient setting, or the hospital. Given that about 50% of patients will develop some head and neck symptoms during the course of the disease (5,6), the otorhinolaryngologist can be called to assist with diagnosis and management of HIV-related complications (6). In this chapter, we will list entities which are frequently or specifically seen in HIV infection. As the field is undergoing rapid evolution, some of these entities may become obsolete in the near future, while novel ones may emerge.
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The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.