Manifestations of SLE occur through a variety of pathogenetic mechanisms. Lesional skin biopsies can demonstrate inflammation and degeneration of the dermo-epidermal junction. Granular deposits of immunoglobulins and complement components can be seen, often in a band-like pattern, under immunofluorescent microscopy. Frank vasculitis can affect small blood vessels as well. Whether otorhinolaryngeal manifestations such as autoimmune hearing loss seen in association with SLE result primarily from autoantibody-mediated events, or vasculitis, or a combination of inflammatory and immune events, is largely unknown. Some neurologic manifestations of SLE have been associated with antiphospholipid antibodies, giving rise to the possibility that pathogenesis could be linked to thrombosis.
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The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.