Wilbert S Aronow MD

Westchester Medical Center, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA The American College of Cardiology (ACC) American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for the evaluation and management of heart failure (HF) define four stages of HF 1 . Patients with stage-A HF are at high risk of developing HF because of conditions strongly associated with the development of HF 1 . These patients have hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, a history of cardiotoxic drug therapy, alcohol...

Sabu Thomas MD Michael W Rich MD

Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA Although the heart failure (HF) syndrome has been recognized for more than 2000 years, it has been only within the last 25 years that HF has emerged as a major public health concern 1 . A principal reason for this relatively recent development is that HF is primarily a disorder of the elderly, and only in the last half-century has life expectancy increased sufficiently to allow more HF cases to emerge. In the United States, mean life...

Never Too Late to Drink From the Fountain of Youth

Baliga, MD, MBA James B. Young, MD Consulting Editors In 1900 life expectancy at birth in the United States was 47 years. Today, it is about 78 years, an increase of 64 (or 30 years). The United States (US) Census Bureau has predicted that life expectancy will be in the mid-80s by 2050, and it is expected to plateau in the low 90s soon after that. It has also been predicted that the US will have 5.3 million individuals over age 100 by the end of this century. It is not surprising...

Vincent L Sorrell MDa Navin C Nanda MDb

AUniversity of Arizona, Sarver Heart Center, Tucson, AZ, USA b University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Heart failure (HF) is the number-one cause of cardiovascular hospitalization in older adults in the United States. This disease is common, disabling, and especially deadly in the elderly population. Hypertension and coronary artery disease are the leading causes of HF. A precise diagnosis of the cardiac pathology is paramount for adequate treatment, and echocardiography offers...

Common in the very old and frail and often accompanied by dyspnea and fatigue More common in those who have vascular

95 had DOE (-75 current and -20 past), and more than 65 had dyspnea at rest (-25 current and 50 past) 26 . In another group of ambulatory older adults (mean age 70 years) presenting at the emergency department with dyspnea, approximately 75 had DOE and approximately 25 had dyspnea at rest 49 . In a cohort of hospitalized older adults (mean age 79 years) who had acute HF, approximately 26 had DOE and approximately 90 had dyspnea at rest 50 . The higher prevalence of dyspnea at rest in the latter...