Srihari S. Naidu, S. Chiu Wong, and Richard M. Steingart
The aging of a population replete with risk factors for heart failure (HF) (coronary heart disease, diabetes, and hypertension) coupled with a declining age-adjusted mortality rate for coronary artery and hypertensive heart diseases has created, and will continue to create, a literal explosion in the prevalence of HF in the United States. Despite advances in maximal medical therapy, however, most patients who have symptomatic HF can expect functional impairment, interludes of worsening symptomatology, and a shortened lifespan. This article updates the use of interventional therapies for the treatment of elderly patients who have HF caused by coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, congenital heart disease, myocardial disease, and renal vascular disease.
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