Earthworms Ebooks Catalog
Earthworms belong to a well-defined clade, the Clitellata, which includes leeches, branchiobdellids, many aquatic and small terrestrial worms with a single cell-layered clitellum, and the earthworms, most of which have a multi-layered clitellum. However, earthworms as a group lack a defining characteristic unique to earthworms. This is because they include the Moniligastridae, a south and east Asian earthworm family, which have a single-layered clitellum and prosoporous (male genital openings in front of the female genital openings). All other earthworms have a multi-layered clitellum and male genital openings behind the female pores (opisthoporous) and are called the Crassiclitellata. As soft-bodied invertebrates, earthworms lack a fossil record, other than burrow traces that may or may not have been created by earthworms. Their phylo-genetic relationships have been a matter of controversy since the early twentieth century. Based on analysis of DNA sequence data, Jamieson et al....
Kingfishers eat a wide range of small animals and are capable of taking prey from the ground, water, air, or foliage. Most species spend much of their time perched on the lookout for prey, and only a few expend energy to hover or hawk after prey. Despite their name, none of the kingfishers feed exclusively on fish, and ignore aquatic animals for their diet. Most are adaptable and consume a range of relatively large invertebrates, especially grasshoppers in savanna, earthworms in forest, and crustacea in water as well as small vertebrates, especially reptiles, fish, and amphibia. Only three species have been reported eating fruit two eating fruit during winter at
Food is mainly obtained by digging after locating food items by smell. Small pits are dug using the forefeet and the long nose. Food is extracted and deftly manipulated in the front feet. Eats earthworms, adult and larval insects, other invertebrates, tubers, bulbs, and fallen fruit.
As one of the few tropical earthworms capable of persisting under agricultural tillage conditions, it may be of some importance in creating soil properties favorable to plant growth, but it has been implicated in soil structure breakdown when population density becomes high. Edwards, C. A., and P. J. Bohlen. Biology and Ecology of Earthworms. 3rd edition. New York Chapman and Hall, 1996. Lee, K. E. Earthworms, Their Ecology and Relationships with Soils and Land Use. Sydney, Australia Academic Press, 1985. Gates, G. E. Burmese Earthworms. An Introduction to the Systematics and Biology of Megadrile Oligochaetes with Jamieson, B. G. M. Native earthworms of Australia
A mated kagu pair builds a ground nest of dry leaves, eight to twelve inches in diameter, in which the female lays a single egg weighing two and a half ounces. The male and female take turns sitting on the egg for twenty-four hour stretches, one parent usually replacing the other at midday. The incubation period lasts an average of thirty-five days. The young chick has a coat of brown, downy feathers. Both parents care for the chick, and feed it with insects, spiders, and earthworms.
No termites are officially listed as endangered or threatened. With so much time and money invested in killing them, little consideration has been given to their conservation. In the tropics, termites are estimated to make up as much as 75 percent of the total weight of insects found in the forests and 10 percent of the total weight of all animals. Next to earthworms, termites represent one of the most important parts of any tropical habitat. They recycle vast amounts of plant material, making it available again as food for other plants and animals.
The eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) eats helpful invertebrates such as earthworms, which turn and aerate the soil. (Photo by L. L. Rue, III. Bruce Coleman Inc. Reproduced by permission.) The eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) eats helpful invertebrates such as earthworms, which turn and aerate the soil. (Photo by L. L. Rue, III. Bruce Coleman Inc. Reproduced by permission.)
Foraging typically takes place on the ground, including nosing through leaf litter and digging beneath it. The diet primarily includes fallen fruit and a large proportion of arthropods from a wide range of groups, including beetles, ants, spiders, or-thopterans (cockroaches and crickets), centipedes, and millipedes. Also feeds regularly on earthworms.
Nicholson and collaborators are also building databases of dose- and time-related toxic responses of earthworms to small organic molecules including fluoroanilines and fluorobiphenyls. This approach particularly exploits the sensitivity and selectivity of 19F NMR for toxin-related materials so as to elucidate metabolic pathways 46, 47 . The endogenous response is measured by 1D and 2D XH NMR combined with pattern-recognition techniques 44 . Potential novel markers in the earthworm for fluoroaniline toxicity were identified by HPLC-Fourier transform mass spectrometry and off-line XH and 13C NMR. These included decreased 2-hexyl-5-ethyl-3-fur-ansulfonate and increased inosine monophosphate 15 . This strategy illustrates the power of the combined technologies using conventional NMR and pattern-recognition methods to profile extracts of the samples according to dose and time, followed by 2D NMR and LC-NMR MS to characterize the individual analytes as biomarkers or patterns of response....
Subfossil species had even more outrageous versions of the simple finch bill. Two species of shovelbills (genus Vangulifer), had bills that were long and thin but with broad, rounded tips. Unique among honeycreepers, these may have fitted the species out for snagging insects on the wing. The gapers (genus Aidemedia) had bills with powerful muscles for opening the bill against pressure. This trait has a parallel with the meadowlark (Sturnella sp.), which uses a gaping bill to force open sod for reaching earthworms. The extinct King Kong finch (Chloridops regiskongi) had the largest known honey-creeper bill. A reporter used the name King Kong as an adjective to convey the massiveness of the bill, and the comparison worked its way into scientific nomenclature.
Omnivorous, predominantly frugivorous, but little known. Birds acrobatically cling to tree boughs and trunks to tear and probe into epiphytic plant growth for invertebrates and small vertebrates. Nestlings fed a large proportion (65 ) of animals, including earthworms, insect larvae, crickets, beetles, mantids, katydids, spiders, frogs, and skinks.
Protostomes are one of the most diverse and abundant groups in the animal kingdom. Their distribution, variety, and abundance are largely the result of evolutionary adaptations to climatic changes in their respective environments. At present, they inhabit a wide range of terrestrial and marine environments. Many protostomes are familiar to most people, including spiders, earthworms, snails, mussels, and squid, to mention just a few. Their lifestyles, origins and diversity all have underlying structures and functions that depend on the interactions between abiotic (nonliving) and biotic (living) components of the environment both past and present. From the fossil record, protostomes first appeared about 600 million years ago, although researchers believe that many of the early members of this group became extinct. Those few that did survive, however, evolved and radiated, or diversified, into the variety of protostomes that biologists recognize today. Protostomes are presently...
Most coraciiform species are arboreal in their feeding, breeding, and roosting habits, though a minority of species spend much time on the ground. Most species feed on small animals, especially small vertebrates and large arthropods, and they catch their prey mainly by dropping down from a perch to the ground (e.g., true rollers) or into water (e.g., kingfishers). More aerial species may hover in search of prey (e.g., kingfishers), or they may take most food by hawking it on the wing (e.g., bee-eaters and broad-billed rollers). Many species, such the todies and motmots, combine terrestrial and aerial capture of prey into their foraging repertoire, often in quite different proportions. A few species are specialized in their foraging habits or diet for example, bee-eaters de-venom their prey, cuckoo-rollers concentrate on chameleons, and shovel-billed kingfishers (Clytoccyx rex) specialize on earthworms. A few species collect most of their food while they walk or run about on the...
Clitellum A swollen, collarlike band toward the front of earthworms. The burrowing activities of earthworms enrich the soil, providing water, plant material and other nutrients. ( Holt Studios Bob Gibbons Photo Researchers, Inc.) Protostomes are especially valuable for the services they provide. The burrowing activities of earthworms enrich the soil by mixing it with plant materials and other nutrients. Mussels, oysters, and barnacles keep oceans, bays, and estuaries clean and clear by filtering out huge amounts of plant, animal, and other tissues. For example, the oysters in the Chesapeake Bay once filtered the entire volume of water in the bay every three to four days. But today, after years of harvesting, there are only enough oysters left to filter the entire bay once a year. As a result, the water quality of the bay is very poor. Some protostomes are harmful or are considered pests. For example, mollusks sometimes have other organisms living inside their bodies. These organisms...
The strange bodies of myzostomids make them difficult to classify. When they were discovered in 1827, myzostomids were placed with flukes, a kind of flatworm. Later they were classified with a group that contained water bears and crustaceans (krus-TAY-shuns), waterdwelling animals that have jointed legs and a hard shell but no backbone. Today most scientists consider them with the group that includes sand worms, earthworms, and leeches. Studies, including DNA analysis, show that they are most closely related to flat worms.
Pittas forage terrestrially, hopping along the forest floor, sometimes remaining motionless to search for exposed invertebrates, sometimes searching noisily through the leaf-litter or digging in the soil for earthworms. The primary food items are invertebrates, including spiders, a wide variety of insects, snails and slugs, and annelid worms. Some of the larger species may also take small vertebrates, including small frogs, snakes, and even mice. Seeds have also been found in the stomachs of several species, but whether fruit is regularly consumed or simply eaten from the forest floor after it is infested with insects remains unknown. Using stone anvils for smashing snails to remove the shells has been observed in at least six species. Earthworms figure prominently in the diets of many pittas, especially during the nesting season. In Australia, the diet of the rainbow pitta varies seasonally earthworms comprise most of the diet during the wet season, while other invertebrates are more...
Insect larvae, adult aquatic invertebrates, and even small fishes. Much food is gathered from the near-water larder, including terrestrial insects, snails, earthworms, and even appreciable amounts of fungi and green plant materials. The daily intake seems to be about 5-10 of body weight. Insects, earthworms and
Its diet includes mostly insect larvae and earthworms, but it also eats other invertebrates, including slugs and centipedes, as well as roots and seeds. Predators include hawks and owls during the rare occasions when the mole is on the surface, or digging mammals, such as foxes, and domestic cats and dogs.
Star-nosed moles are active foragers day and night, either finding earthworms, insect larvae, and other invertebrates in their tunnels, or swimming to hunt aquatic invertebrates, or an occasional small fish or crustacean. This mole also forages above ground. Earthworms, insects,
Diet Their food includes insects, insect larvae, ants, termites, beetles, slugs, grubs, snails, millipedes, caterpillars, and earthworms. The birds sit quietly and watch for prey. If none is found, they go to another perch or fly down to the ground to forage among the leaf-litter of the forest floor.
Diet The American robin is an omnivore, feeding on fruits, berries, grass seeds, and many invertebrates including beetles, caterpillars, grasshoppers, snails, spiders, and earthworms. American robins and people The American robin is a very common and easily recognized bird, often seen pulling earthworms up from lawns and gardens. It is significant to North American people as a popular sign of spring, and was once hunted for meat in the southern United States.
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) collected a never-before-seen burrowing barnacle in a conch shell in Chile. In order to classify his discovery properly, Darwin began a careful study of all barnacles, including fossils. In eight years (1846-1854) he wrote four important books on barnacles, representing the first modern studies of the group. Darwin's work with barnacles, earthworms, insect-eating plants, and other organisms helped him to write his most important book, On The Origin of Species, in 1859.
Mammals, mainly rodents and rabbits, are the mainstay of the diet in most places. However, a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate food is eaten including earthworms, beetles, the young of ground nesting birds, and human scraps. Lambs are found around red fox dens, but in many cases the victims are known to be sickly or stillborn. Red foxes use their ears to locate the rustle of a mouse in the grass and then launch themselves in a pounce to land on their prey. Other food items appear to picked up opportunistically as they traverse their territories at night.
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