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Feeding ecology and diet

Primate species exhibit a wide range of diets, although most of them include at least some fruits in their food intake. If there is a typical dietary category for primates generally, it is surely fruit consumption, as this is found from the smallest to the largest species. Although most primates eat at least some fruits, primates can be classified into three main dietary categories representing at least 50 of food intake (1) insectivores, feeding mainly on arthropods (e.g., tarsiers) (2) frugivores, feeding mainly on fruits (e.g., most forest-living monkeys) (3) folivores, feeding mainly on leaves (e.g., leaf-monkeys). There is a general trend among primates for the diet to shift progressively from insectivory through frugivory to folivory as body size increases. This is understandable because small-bodied mammals have relatively high-energy requirements per unit body weight and must eat foods with a rich, easily available energy content. Large-bodied mammals have relatively low...

Dairy consumption energy intake and body weight

Dairy consumption has been associated with both increased and decreased energy intake. A greater consumption of dairy products was associated with a higher energy intake of adults in Bogalusa, LA (Ranganathan et al., 2005). Because an association was also found between the number of servings of dairy products and saturated fat intake, these results suggest that the higher energy intake results from the consumption of high fat dairy products. Surprisingly, the association between dairy consumption and body weight of the study group was not reported. However, Rajpathak and colleagues (2006) found that American men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study) who increased dairy consumption over 12 years gained slightly more weight than those who reduced intake the most. This association was largely due to the intake of high-fat dairy products because low-fat dairy intake was not associated with body weight change. Nevertheless, weight gain with increased dairy consumption was found to be less...

Body design and skeletal system

As endotherms, mammals require more energy than ec-tothermic animals. Consequently, many mammal traits evolved to conserve energy. This is particularly true of the mammal skeleton. Mammals differ as a group from other living quadrupedal vertebrates in that their limbs are positioned directly below the body, allowing more energy-efficient locomotion. The lateral placement of the limbs on reptiles and amphibians requires them to spend considerable energy keeping their bodies lifted off of the ground while they un-

Autonomic Innervation Of The Heart

The autonomic nervous system is separated into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. These two systems send neurons to the same target, but convey opposite effects. In emergency situations, sympathetic nerves travel to the heart and innervate the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes to increase the rate and force of contraction. In resting situations, parasympathetic nerves innervate the sinoatrial and atrio-ventricular nodes to slow the heart rate, reduce the force of contraction, and constrict the coronary arteries, thus saving energy.

Partial Glyceride Production A Monoglycerides

Monoglycerides are widely applied as emulsifiers or surfactants and are normally produced by high-temperature glycerolysis using an inorganic catalyst (4). The product is a mixture of mono- and diglycerides (1 1 w w) and residual triglycerides. Moreover, because of the reaction conditions applied, the crude product is often dark in color and has a burnt flavor. Obviously, this requires extensive purification during further down stream processing, generally involving molecular distillation. Because of the ambient reaction temperatures applied, lipase catalyzed processing has widely been investigated as the more natural process, with fewer byproducts and lower energy consumption.

The Regional Status of Air Pollution

The growth in energy demand in recent decades has been particularly marked in rapidly industrializing countries and regions. Between 1990 and 1993 Asia's energy consumption grew by 6.2 per annum, whilst the global energy consumption fell by 1 .4 The Asia-Pacific region accounted for 41 of world coal consumption in 19934 and large power plants are the greatest contributors to sulfur dioxide pollution in many developing country regions. Figure 9 shows that at the same time as SO2 emissions have been decreasing in Europe and North America, the increased combustion of fossil fuels in Asia has resulted in increased SO2 emissions these trends are projected to continue over the next decades.

The Possibility of Continuously Measuring Energy Metabolism

The small body size of insects offers the opportunity of continuously monitoring the total energy metabolism of a whole population over their total life span. This results in a ''metabolic picture.'' One can then test the influence of different treatments (e.g., temperature, light program, drugs, mating, virginity) on the energy consumption. We performed such measurements with Phormia using an infrared CO2 monitoring system (URAS). Due to the restriction on carbohydrates as energy-providing substrate, the CO2 output equals the O2 input and therefore gives a true picture of energy metabolism. Thirty-five flies were placed in a respiration chamber and fed in the usual manner with sugar and water. The relatively big volume of the chamber allows unrestricted flying and walking activity. Figure 21.4 shows an example of such a measurement.

Reproduction in marsupials

Marsupials have the tiniest young in relation to adult size. In the eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus), young at birth weigh less than 0.0001 of the female mass. Put into context, this would be similar to a 150 lb (68 kg) human female giving birth to individual babies that would each weigh 0.0048 lbs (22 g), or 0.08 oz. But extreme altriciality is not a disadvantage in evolutionary terms. In fact, many scientists believe that this is instead a great advantage as the small investment in each neonate allows females to minimize investment in young and be more flexible and responsive to environmental conditions. Mechanistically, if environmental conditions become too tough to raise young successfully, starvation would terminate the production of milk and lead to rapid death of young, thereby saving energy lost (versus pla-cental mammals that have a greater energy investment). This would give marsupial females a competitive advantage over animals with internal pregnancy (placental...

Assessing Response to Therapy

How therapy could lead to increased metabolism and relatively better outcome is suggested from chemotherapy and radiotherapy experiments on tumor cultures and animal tumors (2428). Increased transport has been considered one explanation. Infiltration of dead and dying tumor regions with metabolically active inflammatory elements has been reported following radiotherapy in rats bearing hepatomas implanted in the thigh (29,30). This could occur in responding gliomas and appear in the volume seen by PET as increased metabolism. Another speculative explanation is energy consumption for apoptosis (31,32). Lastly, an additional potential explanation is that therapy destroys tumor cells leading to an uncrowding effect that allows more active metabolism in surviving normal elements (i.e., within a volume of tissue the ratio and density of normal cells to tumor cells improves), leading to increased regional metabolism.

Deterministic Annealing

Where kB is Boltzmann's constant and Z is a constant independent of all states. Gibbs distribution tells us that states of low energy occur with higher probability than states of high energy, and that as the temperature of the system is lowered, the probability concentrates on a smaller subset of low energy states.

The Parallel Nature of Feedback in Living Individuals and Communication Machines

It is my thesis that the physical functioning of the living individual and the operation of some of the newer communication machines are precisely parallel in their analogous attempts to control entropy through feedback. Both of them have sensory receptors as one stage of their cycle of operation that is, in both of them there exists a special apparatus for collecting information from the outer world at low energy levels, and for making it available in the operation of the individual or of the machine. In both cases these external messages are not taken neat, but through the internal transforming powers of the apparatus, whether it be alive or dead. The information is then turned into a new form available for the further stages of performance. In both the animal and the machine this performance is made to be effective on the outer world. In both of them, their performed action on the outer world, and not merely their intended action, is reported back to the central regulatory...

Screening and Cancer Control

This chapter focuses on the use of screening for cancer. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, and in 2007 accounted for 7.9 million deaths (around 13 of all deaths), a figure that is predicted to rise to 12 million by 2030 (WHO, 2009). Screening represents a major part of the cancer control effort, particularly in developed countries. The Papanicolaou (Pap) test for the detection of pre-cancerous cervical lesions is the most widely used cancer screening test. It was developed in 1928 and is now available to women across the globe albeit with different technologies and test frequencies. Some cervical cancer screening programs now also incorporate DNA testing for human papillomavirus (HPV), the viral precursor to cervical cancer. Mammography screening was developed in the 1950s for early diagnosis of breast cancer and involves taking a low-energy X-ray of the breast which is then examined for signs of calcification or soft tissue masses. More recently, colorectal cancer (CRC or...

Aging Research on Bats

Few studies have examined bat longevity, and due to continually improving lifespan data, it is not surprising that some of these studies have reached contradictory conclusions. Some of the earliest work that considered the question of why bats live so long was a comparative survey of lifespans by Bourliere (1958). Addressing the question from the standpoint of the rate of living theory (Pearl, 1928 Sacher, 1959), Bourliere described the extreme longevity of bats as a simple consequence of reduced metabolism during hibernation. This explanation, of course, neglects the long lifespan of homeothermic bats, which do not hibernate. In fact, Herreid (1964) and Austad and Fischer (1991) found no difference in maximum lifespan between hibernating and tropical bats. Jurgens and Prothero (1987) found that after accounting for torpor and hibernation, lifetime energy consumption and body mass predict maximum lifespan reasonably well in hibernating species, but fail to do so in nonhibernating...

Neuronal metabolic support

The brain produces energy by oxidizing glucose the brain receives glucose and O2 from the blood supply. Glucose is transported across the blood-brain barrier via glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1), which is specifically expressed in endothe-lial cells forming the capillary walls. Following transport across the blood-brain barrier, glucose is released into the extracellular space and is accumulated by neural cells via more plasmalemmal glucose transporters (Figure 7.12) neurones predominantly express GLUT3, whereas astrocytes possess GLUT1. Upon entering the cells, glucose is oxidized through glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA or Krebs cycle), which are central steps in energy production. Neurones account for about 90 per cent of brain energy consumption, and glial cells are

Specific Occupations And Parkinsonism

Occupational exposure to magnetic fields may be a risk factor for PD (70). A death certificate (population-based) case-control study in Colorado, U.S.A. utilizing a tiered exposure matrix found an adjusted odds ratio of 1.76 for PD subjects exposed to magnetic fields. Occupations included in this study were electronic technicians and engineers, repairers of electronic equipment, telephone and telephone line installers and repairers, electric power installers and repairers, supervisors of electricians and power transmission installers, power plant operators, motion picture projectionists, broadcast equipment operators, and electricians (70). Another study of electrical workers in a similar group of occupations found a nonsignificant, elevated odds ratio of 1.1 for PD compared to controls, but the study lacked power (71).

Reproductive biology

Horseshoe crabs are long-lived and mature later than other invertebrates. Males mature between 9 and 11 years of age and females, between 10 and 12 years. Horseshoe crabs spawn during the spring and summer. Spawning occurs at high tide on low-energy beaches of estuaries, bays, and coves. One species (Carcinoscorpius rotundicanda) moves upstream into rivers to spawn.

Types of thermal process

Conventional water blanching has lower capital cost and better energy efficiency than steam blanching but results in larger losses of water-soluble components, including vitamins, minerals and sugars. It also results in larger volumes of effluents and risk contamination by thermophilic bacteria. With steam blanching it is possible to reduce significantly the effluent volume as well as leaching losses if air cooling is adopted instead of water. However, uneven blanching can result if the food is blanched in multilayer piles. The individual quick blanching (IQB) technique (Lazar et al., 1971) is an innovation based on a two stage heat-hold principle and has been shown to improve the nutrient retention significantly. Research and engineering efforts led to the development of improved blanching equipment that makes use of steam (saturated or superheated) and recirculating hot water to improve nutrient retention, reduce leaching losses and improve energy efficiency (Cumming et al., 1984)....

Physical characteristics

Bipedal locomotion is the hallmark of the hominin family. Both the morphology and the orientation of bones and joints must be extensively altered from the ancestral pongid condition in order to accommodate bipedality. These alterations affect the foot, leg, pelvis, and vertebral column. Extensive biomechanical analysis of bipedalism has been conducted in living humans. This analysis demonstrates that there is very little electrical activity in muscles when subjects walk at a normal pace and are unencumbered by burdens. Hence, although it is slow, bipedalism is a very energy efficient mode of locomotion. A human walking at a normal speed uses only about

RolfF Barth Jeffrey A Coderre M Graga H Vicente Thomas E Blue and Shin Ichi Miyatake

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the nuclear reaction that occurs when nonradioactive boron-10 is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield high-linear energy transfer a particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Clinical interest in BNCT has focused primarily on the treatment of high-grade gliomas (HGG), and either cutaneous primaries or cerebral metastases of melanoma. Neutron sources for BNCT currently are limited to nuclear reactors and these are available in the United States, Japan, and several European countries. Accelerators also can be used to produce epithermal neutrons and these are being developed in a number of countries, but at this time none are being used for BNCT. Two boron drugs have been used clinically, sodium borocaptate (BSH) (Na2B12H11 SH), and a dihydroxyboryl derivative of phenylalanine, referred to as boronophenylalanine (BPA). The major challenge in the development of boron delivery agents has been the requirement for selective...

Neutron Sources For Bnct Nuclear Reactors

Neutron sources for BNCT currently are limited to nuclear reactors and in the present section we will only summarize information that is described in more detail in a recently published review (138). Reactor derived neutrons are classified according to their energies as thermal (En

Clinical features and epidemiology

Cases and are therefore classified as such rather than a ''unipolar mania''). In order to fulfill current criteria for depression (WHO, 1992 American Psychiatric Association, 1994) an episode must last at least two weeks but in practice most episodes last longer. In addition to low mood and low energy levels, other typical symptoms include anhedonia (the inability to enjoy), loss of self esteem, suicidal ideation, guilt and hopelessness. Biological symptoms are common such as disturbances of sleep, appetite, weight and sexual function. In mania the mood by contrast is one of elation (although irritability is also common). This is typically accompanied by racing thoughts, rapid speech, reckless overactivity, social and sexual disinhibition and overspending, sometimes to a ruinous level. There is almost always a reduced need for sleep and there are frequently expansive and grandiose ideas such as being in possession of special powers or abilities or of having become suddenly rich or...

Real Time Symptom Monitoring With Cancer Survivors

For example, completed and ongoing projects in our research lab utilize computer data processing and transaction services to telecommunication devices to collect weekly patient symptom and HRQL information. Patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent advanced lung cancer who are beginning any line chemotherapy telephone a computerized survey system weekly to complete a brief lung cancer-specific symptom index for 12 weeks, in addition to measures of HRQL and treatment satisfaction at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Results from a pilot trial support the use of computer and telephone technology as a means of collecting weekly data as well as the use of graphic reports as part of routine physician visits. A nurse monitors patient responses on the weekly symptom survey. The nurse contacts any patient who endorses any symptom severity as very much or quite a bit or reports a 2-point worsening from the previous week within 24 hours. The nurse verifies the accuracy of the report and either...

Effect of hyperoxia on VO2 of the healthy subject at exercise

Ergospirometry

In a rat model, Eynan34 showed that a 24hr exposure to normobaric oxygen reversed the energy-saving (reduced oxygen consumption) effect of training, in comparison with sedentary animals. Under exposure to NBO, the VO2 of the trained rats increased by 17 which was similar to the VO2 of the untrained animals. The authors concluded that prolonged exposure to hyperoxia leads to a reduction of the energy efficiency of the trained rat.

Liudvikas Jagminas md Robert E Antosia md mph

Several international agreements have been developed to achieve this goal. The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty is a landmark multilateral UN treaty whose objectives include prevention of the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, promotion of cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and furtherance of the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament. This treaty has been ratified by 188 states, including the five nuclear-weapons states. Verification of compliance is performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Other important agreements include the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which bans all nuclear explosions the Chemical Weapons Convention, which provides a framework for the elimination of this entire category of WMD under universally applied international control and includes an intrusive verification system and the Biological Weapons Convention, which supplements the 1925 Geneva Protocol, but lacks any formal verification program. The 1925 Geneva...

Sign and Symptom Driven Definitions The Syndrome of Frailty

Functional Frailty

These syndromic models have been developed using epidemiologic data on characteristics related to weight loss or muscle weakness based on the conceptualization of frailty as a wasting syndrome. For example, Chin et al. (1999) previously compared three working definitions of frailty, namely, inactivity combined with (1) low energy intake, (2) weight loss, or (3) low body mass index. The combination of inactivity with weight loss was found to be most associated with lower subjective health and performance measures, as well as more disease and disability. In addition, the three-year relative risk for mortality was substantially higher in this group compared to others in the study cohort (odds ratio (OR) 4.1, 1.8-9.4) (Chin et al., 1999).

Assessment

This is a rare autosomal dominant condition triggered by inhalational anaesthetic vapours and probably suxametho-nium. There is a certain predisposition in muscular dystrophy, strabismus and cleft palate. Malignant hyperpyrexia presents with acute cardiorespiratory collapse manifested by cyanosis, hypercapnia, muscle rigidity, acidosis, tachyarrhythmias and a huge temperature rise. Pathologically, there is uncontrolled muscle contraction and energy consumption by the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Treatment is by cardiovascular support and administration of dantrolene. Survivors and screened relatives may carry a 'medical alert' warning and will usually be aware of the condition.

Energy

Powered flight has enormous energy costs. Flight is energetically cheaper than walking or running once the bat is up in the air. However, it takes a considerable amount of calories to get airborne. Flying is very demanding on bat physiology. In some species, the heart rate may rise to approximately 1,000 beats per minute in order to supply oxygen to the tissues during flight. Because of these demands, the heart and lungs are larger in bats than in comparably sized mammals.

How to get through

Movement through soil is energetically very costly. Vleck (1979) has estimated that a 5.3-oz (150-g) pocket gopher burrowing 3.3 ft (1 m) may expend 300-3,400 times more energy than moving the same distance on the surface. To keep the energy costs of burrowing at the minimum, the tunnel should have a diameter as small as possible. To achieve this, subterranean mammals have a cylindrical body with short limbs and no protruding appendages. Even testes of most underground dwellers are seasonally or permanently abdominal. Subterranean mammals are mostly small-sized animals weighing 3.5-7 oz (100-200 g), but ranging from 1 oz (30 g) (Namib golden mole, naked mole-rat, and mole-vole) to 8.8 lb (4 kg) (bamboo rat). In order to penetrate the mechanically resistant medium, subterranean mammals need efficient digging machinery. Subterranean rodents dig (loosen soil) primarily with their procumbent, ever-growing incisors, or use teeth and claws, whereas subterranean...

Photodynamic therapy

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) utilizes a combination of light and photosensitizing drugs to treat accessible deposits of cancer. First used in Germany in 1903 with a combination of eosin and light to treat skin cancer, in its modern form it uses low-energy lasers and a synthetic photosensitizer, derived from the blood of cows and pigs (Photfrui). The drug is injected intravenously when it is concentrated in all cells. However, unlike normal cells which only retain the drug for several hours, tumour cells retain it for several days. If they are exposed to low energy they are destroyed. Initially used to treat metastatic tumour deposits on the skin, extending the laser source using fibreoptic cables allows light to be applied to oesophageal, bronchial and gastrointestinal cancers. The mechanism of action is not fully understood, but apparently a toxic form of oxygen is released and this damages cell membranes and other cellular components, particularly in the blood vessels feeding tumour...

Other Nonmetals

The common way germanium-68 is used is as the source for Ga-68 which is used very extensively in PET applications as a convenient source of low energy positrons. The radiosiotope has a 271 day half-life and decays by pure electron capture to gallium-68. The relatively long half-life of the generator system makes it ideal to use as an internal calibration standard for PET (Gleason, 1960). The main production reaction for As-72 is the 72Ge(p,n)72As reaction which can be carried out on a low energy cyclotron (Tolmachev & Lundqvist, 1995). The production reactions for As-74 are the 74Ge(d 2n)74As reactions with deuterons and the 74Ge(p,n)74As reaction with protons. The As-74 can also be made with an alpha reaction on gallium. There are two primary radioisotopes of selenium which are used in medical applications. These are selenium-73 and selenium-75. Selenium-73 has a half-life of 7.1 hours and has both a relatively low energy gamma at 360 keV and a positron of moderate end point energy...

Related Methods

Focused ciustering methods are hypothesis testing methods that, given a prespecified spatial location, attempt to answer the question, Is there an increase in risk in areas near this location '' These methods can be used to examine potential environmental hazards, such as testing for an increased risk of lung cancer near a coal-burning power plant. Since the locations are specified in advance, these methods cannot be used to identify specific cluster locations, but are instead used to test locations that have been identified by other means. Examples of such methods include Stone (1988), Besag and Newell (1991), and Lawson (1993) see Lawson (2001) and Elliott et al. (2000) for more details.

Adrenal Androgens

In humans, leptin is primarily produced in adipocytes of subcutaneous fat tissue.88 Leptin receptors occur in the hypothalamus, although not on GnRH-producing cells, and in various peripheral tissues, including the ovary.89,90 In adults, circulating levels of leptin are positively correlated with fat mass. The relationship is highly sexually dimorphic, however, with women typically having threefold higher leptin levels per fat mass than men. This dimorphism is a result of the effects of gonadal steroids, testosterone suppressing, and estradiol enhancing leptin production.74,91 In addition to fat mass and gender, leptin levels reflect energy balance and energy flux. Weight loss is associated with low levels of leptin per fat mass, and weight gain with high levels. Maintenance of a lower than normal weight through caloric intake restriction is also associated with low leptin levels per fat mass, indicating a suppressive effect of low energy flux.92,93

Fatigue

Fatigue is prevalent and disturbing, but largely an ignored symptom because it is not life threatening (23). Fatigue can cause severe disruption in the patient's ability to function and also affect multiple aspects of life. Fatigue can be mild to debilitating and is usually cum-mulative. It is often excessive in nature and is a whole body experience not relieved by sleep and is not always the result of activity. Fatigue is not predictable by tumor type, treatment, or stage of illness. High levels of fatigue impact on all aspects and correlate with impaired QOL (24). Fatigue may be one of the significant factors that limit a patient's QOL. Interventions include energy conservation, maintaining normal sleep-wake cycles, learning not to fight the fatigue, flexibility, preplanning, and setting limits and priorities to balance and organizing activities. Interventions such as exercise, yoga, meditation, prayer, walking, rest, and decreasing stimuli may help. Psychostimulants have been used...

Bonding Orbital

A molecular orbital having a lower energy level than the atomic orbitals from which the bonding orbital is formed. Such an orbital can contain two electrons, and their presence results in a strong bond when the overlap of the atomic orbitals is large. Two overlapping atomic orbitals combine to yield one low-energy bonding orbital (designated a) and one high-energy antibonding orbital (designated a*). Two paired electrons are sufficient to fill the s orbital, and any additional electrons must occupy the high energy a* orbital where, rather than stabilizing the bond, they lead to repulsion between the atoms.

Northern basket star

Northern basket stars are adapted to live in strong ocean currents and seek out positions high up in the water column in order to spread out their feeding fans in the form of a concave dish facing the current. They can hold out their arms in a stiff position for long periods of time. There is morphological evidence that the mutable collagenous tissues (MCT) of basket stars may be important in maintaining their stiff fans. The use of MCT lowers the rate of energy consumption in comparison to using muscles for the same purpose. In contrast to shallow-water basket stars that are strictly nocturnal, Gorgonocephalus arcticus uses its feeding fan during the day.

Biopulping

The objective of pulping is to extract cellulose fibers from plant material, generally hard or soft wood trees. Mechanical and chemical pulping are usually employed for this process. However, a biological approach involving white rot fungi could replace environmentally unfriendly chemicals (e.g., chlorine) save on mechanical pulping energy costs and improve the quality of pulp and the properties of paper (Breen and Singleton 1999). The ligninolytic enzymes of white rot fungi selectively remove or alter lignin and allow cellulose fibers to be obtained. Recent data suggest that biopulping has the potential to be an environmentally and economically feasible alternative to current pulping methods (Akhtar et al. 2000 Scott et al. 1998).

Energy Adjustment

Of all foods, so consumption of specific nutrients is also likely to be greater. Bigger, more active subjects will eat more than the sedentary. Improvements in comparisons between subjects and between studies can be achieved through energy adjustment. This is particularly useful when individuals seek to minimize their intake at the level of macronutrients (as with some obese individuals). Differences between under-reporters and those who make valid returns are much reduced after energy adjustment. Energy adjustment is unhelpful when there is no relationship between energy consumption and the relevant nutrient.

Dietary Patterns

In factor analysis, dietary data are obtained by recall methods, and foods are sorted into major nutrient groups. These nutrient groups are then factor-analyzed using principal component methods (with or without rotation). The major factors produced are inspected for content validity and named accordingly, such that a factor that comprises high energy intake, saturated fats, and alcohol might be labeled high risk, where another factor comprising low energy, fruit and vegetables, unprocessed oily fish, and so on might be labeled prudent (Montonen et al., 2005). These factors are consistently derived in samples from diverse Western populations and have proven to be useful in understanding the contributions of diet rather than specific nutrients to risks of disease.

Burramyidae

Pygmy possums are only found in two small areas between 4,265 and 7,300 ft (1,300 and 2,230 m) on the peak of Mt. Kosciusko, the highest mountain in Australia. Its habitat mostly is subalpine, shrubland, and meadows. Burramys has to cope with at least three months of snow cover, during which time it tends to live under the snow, climbing within and between rock crevices, or climbing into bushes to collect seeds and berries. Burramys also stores fat under its skin, and develops a thick fur in autumn. The heaviest animal ever found in autumn weighed 3 oz (82 g). Adults tend to enter hibernation earlier than juveniles, and can remain torpid for periods of up to 20 days. Another means of energy conservation is communal nesting. These nests are normally of either all males or all females, and can be found throughout the year, except when females breed. The social organization of Bur-ramys is more complex than expected in such a small mammal. Up to 10 females (probably related kin such as...

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