Search Engines

An Internet search engines is a computer system that (1) locates and indexes web pages, and (2) processes queries from users who are searching for information on the web. The most common way people find information on the Internet is through a search engine (PEW Internet & American Life Project, 2004). A search engine comprises three components a web spider, a database, and one or more information retrieval algorithms. The web spider (also known as a web crawler'') searches the Internet for...

References

B., Ford, J. G. (2003). Invited commentary Attendance and absence as markers of health status the example of active and passive cigarette smoking. Am J Epidemiol 157 870-3. fcgi cmd Retrieve& db Besculides, M., Heffernan, R., Mostashari,F., et al. (2005). Evaluation of school absenteeism data for early outbreak detection, New York City. BMC Public Health 5 105. Costagliola, D., Flahault,A., Galinec, D., et al. (1991). A routine tool for detection and assessment of...

Weather Data

Data about weather conditions are essential for the use of both usual and inverted models of atmospheric dispersion. Fortunately, weather data from the United States and around the world are available because data are collected in real time, in standard formats, and integrated in a central location that is publicly available without any technical or administrative barriers (http weather.noaa.gov ). Automated weather stations located at civilian and military airports around the world produce...

System Specifications

An engineer or a system analyst approaches design problems in a manner that is fundamentally different from how a doctor or an epidemiologist approaches diagnostic problems. Engineers and systems analysts first develop functional requirements, which for biosurveillance are specifications of the diseases that must be detected, the smallest size outbreak that must be detected, and the time frame within which detection must occur. From the functional requirements, the designer then develops system...

National Retail Data Monitor

The National Retail Data Monitor (NRDM) is a public health surveillance tool that collects daily sales data for selected over-the-counter (OTC) products from retailers nationwide Tor the purpose of detecting outbreaks of disease, either naturally occurring or as a result of bto terrorism. Hie potential benefits to a retail coqioration that participates in the NRDM are listed here. Mitigate the impact of a bioterrorhm attack. The worldwide economic impact of a successful biotcnorism attack would...

ROC Curve Analysis

It is important to note that the preceding table was produced by a case detection algorithm that was operating at a preselected and fixed detection threshold.'' Classification algorithms, such as a case detection algorithm, typically produce continuous figure 20.1 Classifier discrimination. Subjects are classified as positive when the output from the classifier exceeds a threshold, and negative otherwise. TP, true positive FN, false negative FP, false positive TP, true positive. figure 20.1...

Web Sites

American Society of Clinical Pathology (ASCP), http www.ascp.org. American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science (ASCLS), http www. ascls. org. American Society for Microbiology (ASM), http www.asm.org. Association of Public Health Laboratories, http www.aphl.org. Clinical Laboratory Management Association (CLMA), http www. clma.org. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act (CLIA), http www.cms. hhs.gov clia. American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians (AAVLD), http www.aavld.org....

Food Emergency Response Network

Recognizing the need to respond quickly to foodborne disease outbreaks, the federal government created the Food Emergency Response Network (FERN), an effort to integrate the nation's food testing laboratories and improve response to the contamination of food (also discussed in Chapter 8). Roughly analogous to the CDC's Laboratory Response Network (LRN), FERN's members include federal, state, and local agencies. They include the FDA, CDC, USDA, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department...

Current Methods For Interpreting Biosurveillance Data

In current practice, most biosurveillance systems do not use Bayesian algorithms to compute the posterior probability of an outbreak (or of its characteristics). Currently available systems output alerts when daily counts exceed a threshold, which is set in an ad hoc manner to limit the number of false alarms. When interpreting an alert, the decision maker has available only (1) a display of the time series data, and (2) the false-alarm rate (or recurrence interval, which is the average time...

Manufacturing Data

Pharmaceutical manufacturers' compliance with cGMP and ISO standards means that manufacturing is data driven. Both sets of standards require the manufacturer to measure and document many aspects of its operation. These data are both the basis for improving the manufacturing operation and safeguarding the product, and a potential source of data for a biosurveillance system that could pay attention to a pharmaceutical table 10.1 Drugs Vulnerable To Counterfeiting 1. Combivir (lamivudine...

Other Organizations That Conduct Biosurveillance

RODS Laboratory, Center for Biomedical Informatics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Lieutenant Colonel, US Army, Uniformed Services, University of the Health Sciences, Washington, DC Colonel, US Air Force, Force Health Readiness, Tricare Management Activity Deployment Health Support Directorate, Washington, DC Biodefense Laboratory, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY This chapter completes our review of the organizations listed in Table 1.2...

Project Management

Within the discipline of project management, a project is defined as a temporary endeavor to create a unique product, service, or result, and project management as the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements (PMI, 2004). Project management success is completion of the project scope to the satisfaction of the project customer, on time and within budget. To achieve success, project management integrates the project resources to...

Description of Chief Complaint Data Used in Biosurveillance

The recorded chief complaint of most interest to biosurveillance is the one recorded at the time a patient initially presents for medical care.2 This chief complaint is often recorded directly into a registration computer by triage nurses or registration clerks and is highly available for biosurveillance purposes. Table 23.1 is a sample of chief complaints from a registration computer in an ED. The chief complaints are more terse (four or five words) than those recorded in physician notes. They...

The Laboratory Response Network

The CDC's LRN was established in 1999 in compliance with a presidential directive that outlined federal agencies' countert-errorism goals and responsibilities. The mission of the LRN is to maintain an integrated national and international network of laboratories that can respond quickly to acts of chemical or biological terrorism, emerging infectious diseases and other public health threats and emergencies.'' The LRN was first tasked to address state and local public health laboratory...

Department Of Defense

The primary mission of the DoD is to provide the military forces needed to deter war and to protect the security of the United States. The DoD employs 1.7 million active duty, Guard and Reserve personnel who receive health benefits. In addition, over 2.3 million family members and 4.5 million retirees and dependents of retirees receive medical care through the military system (U.S. Department of Defense, 2005e). In order to maintain force health protection and medical readiness, the military...

How 911 Systems Work

When a person dials 911, the telephone company's central office routes the call automatically via dedicated lines to a PSAP. In some systems, especially in smaller communities, the PSAP operator will handle all callers, regardless of the nature of their emergency needs. PSAPs in cities will typically route the caller to a secondary service answering point (SSAP), operated by the appropriate fire or emergency medical services (EMS). While the PSAP operator talks to the caller he she enters...

Example Of Using An Atmospheric Dispersion Model To Prove Wind As Route Of Outbreak Transmission

Meselson et al. (1994) demonstrated using the Gaussian plume model of atmospheric dispersion as a critical component of their analysis that the 1979 outbreak of anthrax in Sverdlovsk, Soviet Union, was due to an aerosol release of B. anthracis spores from a military microbiology facility (Meselson et al., 1994). Furthermore, they determined the time of the release of spores to within 2.5 hours (Guillemin, 2000) and the quantity of the release (Meselson, 2001, Meselson et al., 1994).Their...

Federal Laboratories

The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), USDA,Department of Energy (DOE),DoD,and Departments of Commerce and Justice, and the EPA operate or fund clinical, environmental, forensic, and research laboratories. Federal laboratories provide reference testing and are often involved with the development of new technologies, as well as the transfer of these technologies to other laboratories. Many federal laboratories collaborate with international partners and serve as reference centers...