Some nektonic species form schools. For example, species of Parioglossus or Gobiopterus may form small schools around mangrove roots. Epibenthic species are less likely to form schools; however, large populations (in terms of number of individuals) of epibenthic species may be found in some ecosystems. For example, the common goby is densely distributed through some English estuaries. Some species, such as sicydiines, have a larval phase that migrates upriver in schools of very large numbers. The adults of many species are

A pair of fire gobies (Nemateleotris magnifica) swim over sand and rubble near the islands of Vanuatu Republic. (Photo by Fred Mc-Connaughey/Photo Researchers. Reproduced by permission.)

territorial, especially during the breeding season. Some species live in a commensal relationship with invertebrate species. For example, the gorgeous prawn goby (Amblyeleotris wheeleri) lives in the burrows of alpheid shrimps. Other species, such as the neon goby, act as "cleaner" fish, picking parasites off large fishes. Mudskippers (e.g., Periophthalmus barbarus) are best known for their amphibious lifestyle.

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