One species of callionymid, the St. Helena dragonet (Callionymus sanctaehelenae), which is endemic to the island of St. Helena in the South Atlantic, is currently listed by the IUCN
as Critically Endangered. Some callionymids important to the aquarium trade, such as the mandarinfish (Synchiropus splen-didus) and Repomucenus spp. that are important as food fishes, may also be at risk from overfishing, habitat destruction, and recruitment failure as a consequence of pollution or the creation of anoxic conditions that lead to hypoxia among larvae. No members of the Draconettidae are listed by the IUCN, but these fishes may be at risk from the effects of the deep trawling of their habitats.
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