Conservation Status

Not listed by the IUCN.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS Minor commercial and aquarium fish. ♦

Resources

Books

Allen, Gerald R. "Damselfishes." In Encyclopedia of Fishes, edited by John R. Paxton and William N. Eschmeyer. 2nd edition. San Diego: Academic Press, 1998.

Choat, J. Howard, and David R. Bellwood. "Wrasses and Parrotfishes." In Encyclopedia of Fishes, edited by John R. Paxton and William N. Eschmeyer. 2nd edition. San Diego: Academic Press, 1998.

Helfman, Gene S., Bruce B. Collette, and Douglas E. Facey. The Diversity of Fishes. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science, 1997.

Michael, Scott W. Reef Fishes: A Guide to Their Identification, Behavior and Captive Care. Volumes 1-3. Shelburne, VT: Microcosm Ltd., 1998.

Randall, John E., Gerald R. Allen, and Roger C. Steene. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea, 2nd edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997.

Periodicals

Bshary, R., and D. Schaffer. "Choosy Reef Fish Select Cleaner Fish That Provide High-Quality Service." Animal Behaviour 63 (2002): 557-564.

Donaldson, T. J., and Y. Sadovy. "Threatened Fishes of the World: Cheilinus undulatus Rüppell, 1835 (Labridae)." Environmental Biology of Fishes 62 (2001): 428.

"Cleaning by the Wrasse Thalassoma noronhanum, with Two Records of Predation by its Grouper Client Cephalopholis fulva." Journal of Fish Biology 56, no. 4 (2000): 802-809.

Kavanagh, K. D. "Larval Brooding in the Marine Damselfish Acanthochromis polyacanthus (Pomacentridae) Is Correlated with Highly Divergent Morphology, Ontogeny and Life-History traits." Bulletin of Marine Science 66, no. 2 (2000): 321-337.

Organizations

IUCN/SSC Grouper and Wrasse Specialist Group.

Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. Phone: (852) 2859 8977. Fax: (852) 2517 6082. E-mail: [email protected] Web site: <http://www.hku.hk/ecology/GroupersWrasses/ iucnsg/index.html>

Leslie Ann Mertz, PhD

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Class Actinopterygii Order Perciformes Suborder Zoarcoidei Number of families 9

Photo: An ocean pout (Zoarces americanus) in the Gulf of Maine. (Photo by Andrew J. Martinez/ Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

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