These fishes occur in coastal and estuarine waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Some species also occur in freshwater habitats in Africa, Australia, South America, and Southeast Asia. The Mullidae (six genera and 55 species) is found in tropical and warm-temperate coastal waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. The Toxotidae (one genus and six species) is distributed in coastal marine, brackish, and fresh waters of India, east to the Philippines and Vanuatu, and south to northern Australia. The Dichistiidae (one genus and three species) has a distribution limited to coastal and brackish waters in South Africa and Madagascar. The Kyphosidae (15 genera and 42 species) is mostly tropical or subtropical in distribution, but two species have adapted to temperate waters off California. The Paracorpididae (one genus and at least one species) is known from Mozambique and South Africa. The Drepaneidae (one genus and three species) ranges from the Indo-West Pacific to West Africa. The Monodactylidae (two genera and five species) includes popular aquarium fishes found in tropical and warm temperate waters. One wide-ranging species, Monodactylus argenteus, occurs in brackish, marine, and freshwater habitats from the Red Sea and East Africa, east to Samoa, north to the Yaeyama Islands of southern Japan, and south to Australia and New Caledonia. A second species, M. falciformis, is limited to the western Indian Ocean, from the Red Sea, down to South Africa, and another, M. kottelati, is found only at Sri Lanka. Monodactylus sebae is found in the eastern Atlantic, from the Canary Islands and Senegal south to Angola. The two remaining species, both in the genus Schuettea, are found in temperate brackish and marine waters of southern Australia; one species off southeastern Australia, and the other off Western Australia. The Chaetodontidae (10 genera and as many as 125 species) and the Pomacanthidae (nine genera and at least 73 species) are distributed in tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate coastal waters. Among the chaetodontids, at least 13 species occur in the Atlantic, four species in the eastern Pacific, and the remainder in the Indo-West Pacific region. A similar pattern exists for the pomacanthids. The Enoplosidae

Mated pair of blackback butterflyfish (Chaetodon melanotus) feeding. (Illustration by Joseph E. Trumpey)

(one genus and species) is found in coastal temperate waters of southern Australia. The Pentacerotidae (eight genera and 13 species) occurs primarily in temperate waters of the Indo-Pacific and southwestern Atlantic. The Nandidae (seven genera and 10 species) contains primarily freshwater fishes, but may also occur in brackish-water estuaries. Two species occur in riverine freshwaters of tropical western Africa. Polycen-trus schomburgkii is found in fresh and brackish water from Trinidad and the Guyanas south to the Amazon Basin, while Monocirrhuspolyacanthus is found from Guyana south to Brazil and west to the Peruvian Amazon. The remaining species occur from southern Asia east to Southeast Asia, including Indonesia. The Oplegnathidae (one genus and six species) is found in the coastal warm-temperate waters of the Indo-Pacific region, mainly in Japan, southern Australia (including Tasmania), the Galápagos Islands, Peru, and South Africa. One species has also been reported from the volcanic far-northern Mariana Islands. Among cirrhitoid fishes, the Cirrhitidae (12 genera and 33 species) occurs mainly in the Indo-West Pacific region, but also in the tropical and subtropical Atlantic (three species), and eastern Pacific (three species). Two species have distributions that range from the Red Sea east to Mexico and south to Colombia. Three other species range from the Red Sea east to Hawaii and eastern French Polynesia. On the other hand, a number of hawkfishes have limited distributions. For example, the giant hawkfish (Cirrhitus rivulatus) is restricted to the Eastern Pacific, including the Galápagos. Similarly, Itycirrhitus wilhelmi is found only at Easter and Pitcairn

A pair of redtail butterflyfish (Chaetodon collare) near the Similan Islands (Photo by Fred McConnaughey/Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Islands at the eastern margin of the central Pacific. The splendid hawkfish (Notocirrhitus splendens) is endemic to Lord Howe Island, but strays west to Sydney and the coast of New South Wales in Australia, but also occurs at the Kermadec Islands of New Zealand. The red-barred hawkfish (Cirrhitops fasciatus) has a disjunct distribution and is found only in Hawaii, southern Japan, Mauritius, and Madagascar. Another species with a disjunct distribution, Paracirrhites hemistictus, occurs sporadically throughout the central and western Pacific, but is also found at Christmas and Cocos-Keeling Islands in the eastern Indian Ocean. The Chironemidae (two genera and four species) is distributed in temperate coastal waters of Australia and New Zealand, with one species endemic to Chile, and another limited to the warm-temperate Lord Howe, Norfolk, and the Ker-madec Islands. The Aplodactylidae (three genera and five species) is another Southern Hemisphere family found in the temperate marine waters of Australia, New Zealand, Peru, and Chile. The Cheilodactylidae (four genera and 20 species; Go-niistius of some authors, treated here as a subgenus of Cheilo-dactylus) has an antitropical distribution. Most species are found in Southern Hemisphere waters (Australia, New Zealand; the

Kermadec, Lord Howe, Norfolk, Easter, Rapa, St. Paul's, and Amsterdam Islands; Ilots de Bass, southern Africa, Chile and Peru in the Indo-Pacific; Argentina, southern Africa, Tristan da Cunta Island and Vima Mount in the Atlantic) but members of one genus, Cheilodactylus, also occur off Japan, China, and the Hawaiian Islands. Finally, another Southern Hemisphere family, the Latridae (three genera and nine species), is distributed in coastal southern Australia, New Zealand, Chile, and the southern Atlantic.

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