Catadromous. Migrates downstream to shallow mudflats in estuaries during the wet season. Spawning occurs between September and March in Australia, with peaks in November to December and again in February to March. Females are larger than males, are highly fecund, and may be courted by one or more males at the same time. Eggs are pelagic, hatch within 24 hours, and the larvae grow quickly as they move into mangrove areas, mudflats, and floodplain lagoons. Juveniles move into coastal waters after one year, then migrate upstream where adults reside for three to four years. Populations landlocked by dams migrate to the dam face, but do not spawn. Raised extensively by aquaculture as food or for game fish-stocking programs.
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