Reproductive Biology

The reproduction of this species has been observed under captive conditions. Males defended spawning sites of a few centimeters inside a tube and had a lighter reddish brown coloration (instead of the typical darker brown color of non-breeding males). There is sexual dimorphism in the pelvic fins: males have longer and wider pelvics with inward curving rays. Males displayed by erecting their fins and shaking their tail regions. Females are lighter brown during spawning, with bulging abdomens due to the presence of eggs. Females approached the nesting sites of the male when they were about to spawn (indicated by their protruding genital papillae) and were encouraged to enter the tube by the male. The upside-down female deposited eggs, usually on the roof of the tube; the male fertilized the eggs while also upside-down. Spawning may take several hours, and the male guards the nest. From five to

Indostomus paradoxus Doryrhamphus dactyliophorus

40 elliptical eggs were laid at a time, measuring about 0.08 in by 0.04 in (2 by 1 mm). Eggs hatched three days after spawning, and larvae were free-living four days after hatching, at about 0.14 in (3.5 mm). Larvae have an attachment organ on the tip of the yolk sac. Larval coloration is unique, composed of three black vertical bands, and adult coloration is attained after more than four weeks and at about 0.3 in (8 mm) in length.

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