Reproductive Biology

Migrates to and spawns in aggregations at specific sites, although it sometimes spawns in pairs. Reported to spawn in early morning during the first 1-3 hours of a falling tide just before the full moon. Has been observed spawning at sunset as well. Tidal state, rather than time of day, more likely accounts for the temporal pattern of spawning. Spawning occurs year-round at lower latitudes but may be seasonal at higher latitudes. Eggs and larvae are pelagic.

CONSERVATION STATUS Not listed by the IUCN.

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