Reproductive biology

The reproductive biology of stephanoberyciforms is largely unknown, but both eggs and larvae are pelagic. Eggs are unknown in many species. One highly modified larval form was originally described as a separate genus, Kasidoron, and even given familial status, but it is now well established that it represents the larval form of the gibberfish (Gibberichthys pumilus). This larval form is remarkable, presenting a very long pelvic appendage that superficially resembles algae (such as Sargassum) or siphonophores. The appendage is lost by about 1.2 in (3 cm) standard length. The larvae of Eutaeniophorus and Parataenio-phorus are remarkable in presenting very elongated caudal "streamers," long tape-like projections that may reach several times body length (somewhat smaller in Parataeniophorus); the streamer is lost in adults. Larvae also have been described for Melamphaes, Poromitra, Scopeloberyx, and Scopelogadus. These begin to display their generic characteristics from between 0.2 and 0.8 in (0.5 and 2 cm) standard length. As a general rule, larvae and juveniles appear to occur in more shallow water compared to adults of the same species, which tend to be more bathypelagic.

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