Reproductive Biology

Spawns adhesive, demersal eggs in freshwater. Others in the genus spawn pelagic eggs in seawater. Eggs are spherical and approximately 0.039 in (1 mm) in diameter. The larvae hatch around 0.071 in (1.8 mm) in length, are compressed and moderate in depth, have a large yolk sac, an unformed mouth, and unpigmented eyes. With growth, the head becomes large with a convex dorsal profile that becomes steep over time. Possesses a small gas bladder. Larvae have pelvic fins that are reduced in adults. This character, plus the development of spines on the head, are viewed as specializations for pelagic life.

CONSERVATION STATUS Not listed by the IUCN.

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