Reproductive Biology

Spawns in aggregations and produces pelagic eggs and larvae. Eggs are spherical and small, between 0.024-0.036 in (0.63-0.93 mm) in diameter. Larvae hatch between 0.063-0.134 in (1.6-3.4 mm) in length, are elongate, and have a large yolk sac, unformed jaws, and unpigmented eyes. Body pigmentation develops with absorption of the yolk sac. Possesses a gas bladder and a short gut. The barbels form at about 0.67-0.71 in (17-18 mm) but remain recessed under the lower jaw. Post-larvae appear capable of a relatively long pelagic phase prior to settlement.

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