Significance To Humans

This species has played an important scientific role in the study of anatomical, physiological, and biochemical adaptations to the Antarctic environment. Most significantly, it has featured prominently in the elucidation of biological antifreeze compounds. ♦


Books di Prisco, G., B. Maresca, and B. Tota, eds. Biology of Antarctic Fish. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1991.

di Prisco, G., E. Pisano, and A. Clarke, eds. Fishes of

Antarctica: A Biological Overview. Milan: Springer-Verlag, 1998.

Eastman, J. T. Antarctic Fish Biology: Evolution in a Unique Environment. San Diego: Academic Press, 1993.

Gon, O, and P. C. Heemstra, eds. Fishes of the Southern Ocean. Grahamstown, South Africa: J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, 1990.

Kock, Karl-Hermann. Antarctic Fish and Fisheries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Miller, Richard Gordon. History and Atlas of the Fishes of the Antarctic Ocean. Carson City, NV: Foresta Institute for Ocean and Mountain Studies, 1993.

Pisano, E., C. Ozouf-Costaz, C. Bonillo, and F. Mazzei "Pathways of Chromosomal Change During Evolution of Notothenioid Fishes." In Antarctic Ecosystems: Models for Wider Ecological Understanding, edited by W. Davison, C. Howard-Williams, and P. Broady. Christchurch: Caxton Press, 2000.


Chen, L., A. L. DeVries, and C. H. C. Cheng. "Evolution of Antifreeze Glycoprotein Gene from a Trypsinogen Gene in Antarctic Notothenioid Fish." Proceedings of the National Academy of the USA 94 (April 1997): 3811-3816.

Eastman, J. T. "Antarctic Notothenioid Fishes as Subjects for Research in Evolutionary Biology." Antarctic Science 12 (2000): 276-287.

Eastman, J. T., and R. R. Eakin. "An Updated Species List for Notothenioid Fish (Perciformes: Notothenioidei), with Comments on Antarctic Species." Archive of Fishery and Marine Research 48 (2000): 11-20.

Eastman, J. T., and A. R. McCune. "Fishes on the Antarctic Continental Shelf: Evolution of a Marine Species Flock?" Journal of Fish Biology 57, suppl. A (2000): 84-102.

Kock, K.-H., and I. Everson. "Biology and Ecology of

Mackerel Icefish, Champsocephalus gunnari: An Antarctic Fish Lacking Hemoglobin." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 118A, no. 4 (1997): 1067-1077.

Lack, M. "Antarctic Toothfish: An Analysis of Management, Catch and Trade." TRAFFIC Oceania (2001): 1-27.

Lack, M., and G. Sant. "Patagonian Toothfish: Are

Conservation and Trade Measures Working?" TRAFFIC Bulletin 19, no. 1 (2001): 1-18.

Montgomery, J., and K Clements. "Disaptation and Recovery in the Evolution of Antarctic Fishes." Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15 (2000): 267-271.

Stankovic, A., K Spalik, E. Kamler, et al. "Recent Origin of Sub-Antarctic Notothenioids." Polar Biology 25 (2002): 203-205.

Zhao, Y., M. Ratnayake-Lecamwasam, S. K. Parker, et al.

"The Major Adult a-Globin Gene of Antarctic Teleosts and Its Remnants in the Hemoglobinless Icefishes: Calibration of the Mutational Clock for Nuclear Genes." Journal of Biological Chemistry 273, no. 24 (1998): 14745-14752.



Australian Society for Fish Biology. 123 Brown Street (PO Box 137), Heidelberg, Victoria 3084 Australia. Phone: 61 (3) 9450 8669. Fax: 61 (3) 9450 8730. E-mail: [email protected] Web site: <>

Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). PO Box 213, North Hobart, Tasmania 7002 Australia. Phone: 61 (3) 6231 0366. Fax: 61 (3) 6234 9965. E-mail: [email protected] Web site: <http:/>

TRAFFIC International. 219c Huntington Road, Cambridge, CB3 0DL United Kingdom. Phone: 44 (0) 1223 277427. Fax: 44 (0) 1223 277237. E-mail: [email protected] Web site: <>


Prof J. T. Eastman, Ohio University. "Antarctic Fishes." (March 27, 2003) < dbms-eastman/index.htm>

John A. Macdonald, PhD

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