101 Toxic Food Ingredients
Fish oils are listed as functional food ingredients because of their remarkable effect on preventing sudden cardiac death.13 The recommended consumption of fish in Western countries is one or two portions per week. The average intake varies highly between countries, with a six- to sevenfold variation in total fish consumption in countries in Europe,14 but is lower than the recommendation. Instead of increasing the amount of fish in the diet, functional foods enriched with the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can be used. Several foods can be fortified with fish oil, for example margarines, dairy products, sausages, luncheon meat and french onion dip.15
Many participants will record everything at the end of the day due to the burden of recording in real time. Some protocols require participants to weigh and or measure foods before eating, while less stringent protocols use food models, photographs of food, measuring cups, and other aids to instruct respondents on estimating serving sizes. Often the food diary is carefully reviewed or documented by a trained dietitian to confirm food portion sizes, ingredients added in cooking and at the table (such as salt, oils, salad dressings, butter, and other condiments), and additional food details. However, this type of detailed review and documentation can add greatly to the participant burden since the minutiae required can seem overwhelming and time consuming to participants. In addition, this type of very detailed documentation adds to the overall cost of food record collection, but may not add significant or necessary food details. One study showed that when detailed, step-by-step...
The sixth pattern is contamination of commercially distributed products, especially food. Food contamination may be as simple as contamination at the site of preparation, which is what the Rajneesh cult attempted in The Dalles, Oregon, or as involved as tampering with distribution or production facilities (Torok et al., 1997). The timeliness requirement may be anthrax-like, as many individuals can be infected nearly simultaneously.
Directive is the Council Directive 89 107 EEC Concerning Food Additives Authorized for Use in Foodstuffs Intended for Human Consumption, also called the Additives Framework Directive (3). According to this directive, additives are everything added to food that is not normally used as a characteristic ingredient (a characteristic ingredient would, for instance, be milk in cheese or flour in bread). In the directive, food additives are divided into those that have a technological effect in the finished product and those that do not have a technological effect in the finished product. Additives of the first category may only be used if they have been authorized and included in a positive list together with their so-called E-number and, if applicable, permitted applications. Moreover, their presence in the final food has to be declared in the ingredient list of the foodstuff. Additives of the second category are exempt from these obligations thus they do not...
A class of dietary assessment instruments particularly well suited for behavioral medicine are those focused specifically on eating behaviors (in contrast to absolute intake measures in standard instruments). The development of these dietary behavior instruments was initially motivated by problems with assessing dietary intervention effectiveness, particularly low-fat interventions (Kristal et al, 1990). The fat-related diet habits questionnaire was based on an anthropologic model that described low-fat dietary change as four types (1) avoiding high-fat foods (exclusion) (2) altering available foods to make them lower in fat (modification) (3) using new, specially formulated or processed, lower fat foods instead of their higher fat forms (substitution) and (4) using preparation techniques or food ingredients that replace the common higher fat alternative (replacement) (Shannon et al, 1997). A recently developed mindful eating questionnaire was designed as a cognitive approach for...
Since the beginning of federal regulations involving enzymes they have been, and continue to be, classified as food additives. As noted earlier in this chapter, they were originally classified as GRAS. But after 1958, when the Food Additive Amendment was passed, safety of the enzyme-containing product had to be addressed, and in 1972, all GRAS status was revoked. As pointed out in Section II above, these changes require extensive data in the petition asking for reinstatement of GRAS status. Regulation of food additives is covered in the Code of Federal Regulation Title 21, 170-199 (11). Enzymes are covered collectively with other food additives in Part 170 Food Additives, Chapter 1, Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services Subchapter B, Food for Human Consumption as to regulation procedures, in 171, Food Additive Petitions in 173, Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption and in 184, Direct Food Substances Affirmed as...
Tions, which propagate via redox-active food constituents such as metal ions and quinones and hence are difficult to control. In addition, many oxidoreductases require expensive cofactors for catalysis. Despite these disadvantages over hydrolytic enzymes, certain oxidor-eductases are increasingly finding a home in food processing. The first generation (see Table 1) includes enzymes which are cofactor independent and thrive on oxygen (e.g., oxidases) and hydrogen peroxide (e.g., peroxidases). Owing to advances in recombinant DNA technology the low-cost, large-scale production of these enzymes in GRAS host microorganisms is becoming within reach, and the tools are ready to tailor redox enzymes to specific needs by site-directed mutagenesis and directed evolution. Also feasible will be the in planta overexpression of desired redox enzymes in food raw materials and the deletion of undesirable redox traits. The usage of cofactor-depen-dent oxidative enzymes seems tentatively to be confined...
Their mechanism of action thus awaits to be elucidated. 6-pentylapyrone is probably the most frequently studied of these metabolites, as it also exhibits a pronounced coconut-aroma which can be used as a (for humans) nontoxic flavoring agent. Its biosynthesis has been claimed to be derived from linolenic acid (Serrano-Carreon et al. 1993), but this conclusion was criticized by Sivasithamparam and Ghisalberti (1998), who consider it to be a product of polyketide biosynthesis. No other of the genes or proteins involved in Trichoderma secondary metabolism has as yet been characterized.
Food-borne illness is not uncommon in the United States and has significant economic impact. Food contamination causes 76 million illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths every year, according to a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) study published in 1999. The majority of deaths occur owing to unidentified agents, but 1,500 deaths per year can be attributed to Listeria, Salmonella, and Toxoplasma species (Mead et al., 1999). More than 200 different diseases may be transmitted in contaminated food, including ailments caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites, prions, bacterial toxins, and metals. The impact of outbreaks owing to food contamination can potentially be severe. In 1951 in the French village of Pont-St.-Esprit, hundreds of villagers ate bread baked that morning from flour contaminated with ergot. The mold-infested
When consumers fall ill after eating food purchased from a retailer or restaurant, investigators will elicit a food consumption history, as well as the restaurants or retailers they patronized. The retailers or restaurants, in turn, identify the wholesalers. The wholesalers identify their suppliers, who may have difficulty identifying the farm or farms of origin because of product commingling. (The commingling of farm products is a major gap in trace-back ability.) At each point in the trace-back, inspectors observe the procedures for storing or processing the food, looking for abuses that would result in food contamination. Specimens may be taken to determine if other similarly handled food or the environment that the food was stored or processed in is contaminated. If there is evidence to suggest that contaminated food is in the distribution chain, then the manufacturer initiates a recall of that food.
Historically, numerous guidelines have been established in the United States, Canada, Europe, United Kingdom, Australia, Japan, and the Nordic countries. The major ones are guidelines of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for food additives (30, 31), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA Toxic Substance Control Act TSCA and Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act FIFRA ) (32-36), European Economic Community Council (37,38), United Kingdom (39-41), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD (28), and Japan Ministry of Health and Welfare (42, 43). These guidelines define the battery of tests the OECD guidelines, especially, also provide detailed procedures for the conduct of these assays.
No matter how anecdotal the evidence, even the ancient societies recognized the use of fungal technology, in relationship with their agriculture and food. Knowledge of fungal diversity and distinguishing beneficial fungi for the biotransformation of food ingredients, helped to sustain and extend our food source. In spite of the powerful toxic secondary metabolites of many fungi, humanity survived these fungi and through innovative use of the beneficial micro and macro fungi found particular culinary and other uses of the mushrooms (see this volume, chapter by Rai).
Organic acids, vitamins, nonvolatile and volatile flavor organic molecules (e.g., vanillin and 2-heptanone) are important compounds in food production and technology. They serve as food ingredients or as precursors for food ingredients. The major organic acids produced and used in the largest volumes function primarily as food acidulants. The means for organic acid and production methods rely on bacteria and fungi. If these ingredients are used as a food ingredient, they must have a GRAS (generally regarded as safe) status. Although the use of Penicillium was the primary source for many organic acids, in recent years Aspergillus niger has become the preferred organism and riboflavin oversynthesizing strains of Pichia guilliermondii the preferred source.
In certain food production schemes, food additives and ingredients obtained through fungal fermentation technology contribute much to aroma and flavors. Fungi grown in either liquid cultures or in solid-state fermentation have the advantages of in situ contribution to the value of foods (see Arora 2004, chapters by Saxsena and Malhotra Nigam, Robinson, and Singh and Vinigera-Gonzalez). Several specific aspects of fungal biotechnology's contribution to functional attributes including taste and smell of foods are discussed in depth in the following chapters (see this volume, chapters Castrillo and Ugalde Agrawal and Hansen and Jakobsens see also chapter by Avalos, Arora 2004).
Recent advances in diagnostic biotechnology have revolutionized the procedures used in the identification of food fungi. Biochemical identification assays have been miniaturized and through automation and uses of robotics have become faster, reliable, and cost affordable. Rapid identification of fungi and yeasts from foods has become less cumbersome because of ease in sequestering of target fungi from the food ingredients and interfering compounds. In addition, biochemical tests which traditionally have been used in the identification of yeasts and filamentous fungi have been greatly aided by the introduction of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology.
The technological challenge of stably introducing a foreign gene into a food crop and having that gene product function as desired, the problems of controlling substrate flux partitioning to drive a desired biosynthetic pathway, and the potential risks posed by transgenic food crops are troublesome issues that have underscored the need for continued research on and development of nongenetic approaches for the enrichment of isoflavonoids in soybean foods and food ingredients (1). Major nongenetic approaches for increasing phenolic content in dietary plants include bioprocessing of soybean substrates and stimulation of the plant defense responses, which is known to result in the stimulation of phenolic synthesis. Both of these approaches could potentially be used to increase isofla-vonoid content in soybeans.
The Novel Food Regulation (258 97 EC) defines foods or food ingredients that were not consumed to a significant extent in the EU before 1997 as novel, and subject to a safety assessment, before they can be introduced into market (Chadwick et al., 2003). Genetically modified or GM foods have subsequently been removed from the sphere of the Novel Food Regulation and subjected to specific regulations on GM foods and feeds (see page 268).
The claims associated with foods have received considerable attention from legislators. one of the central principles has been that a clear distinction between food and medicines should be maintained. This principle is rather forcefully formulated in Directive 2000 13 EC which categorically forbids claims to 'attribute to any foodstuff the property of preventing, treating or curing human diseases or refer to such properties'. This principle makes the marketing of functional foods rather difficult, because it prevents conveying to the general public even scientifically valid information on the health-promoting effects of functional foods or food ingredients.
The existing starter cultures are generally classified either as food ingredients, processing aids or ingredients (Feord, 2002). In Europe currently only in Denmark and France is there a formal notification or approval systems for new strains intended for food use (von Wright, 2005). The French guidelines are based on a decision tree approach also recommending toxicological studies (including animal studies) if there is a need to guarantee an absence of risk.
Limonoid aglycones are present in high concentrations in citrus seeds (1, 21). Isolated aglycones generally are water insoluble, and among 36 aglycones isolated from Citrus and its closely related genera, six are intensely bitter in taste (1, 22). Mass conversion of these aglycones to limonoid glucosides is pharmacologically an important future project. It would enhance the utilization of these byproducts of citrus juice processing. Limonoid glucosides are excellent candidates for new food additives as they provide anticarcinogenic activity. They are soluble in water and are practically tasteless. An approach would be to use transgenic E. coli cultures containing the LGTase gene to convert limonoid aglycones isolated from seeds into limonoid glucosides in fermentation tanks. The LGTase gene has been successfully expressed in E. coli (16).
One aspect of risk for nursing-home residents is possible mistreatment. Awareness of resident abuse, neglect, and exploitation by staff has a long history, with public concern about the problem culminating during the 1970s. In 1970, Ralph Nader called for an ''old people's liberation movement'' when an investigation of nursing-home conditions uncovered instances of fatal food contamination and drug experimentation on residents (Townsend, 1971). A few
Sorbic acid at 1000ppm and pH 7.0 will not inhibit mold growth. However, if the pH is lowered to 5.0, growth of most molds will be inhibited (Liewen and Marth 1985). Antioxidants such as BHA and BHT have been shown to potentiate the action of sorbic acid (Scott 1989). In general, antifungal food additives become more effective as environmental conditions move away from the optimum for a particular organism.
As part of its program begun in 1971 to evaluate the safety of chemicals, the OECD developed Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals. This collection of the most relevant internationally agreed upon testing methods is to be used by government, industry, and independent laboratories when testing the safety of new and existing chemicals as well as chemical preparations such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and food additives. These guidelines cover tests for physical-chemical properties, human health effects, environmental effects, and degradation and accumulation in the environment.
The prebiotics most commonly used as functional food ingredients are non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDOs), of which a variety of types are commercially available (32). Most of these NDOs are natural components of many common foods including honey, milk, and various fruits and vegetables (32-34). Commercially, they are produced as food ingredients by four main processes
The past two decades have seen a growing interest in microbial enzyme systems that degrade plant xylan, a polymer of the five-carbon sugar D-xylose. Xylose can be converted to a variety of useful products, including ethanol, the engine fuel of the future (15, 16). Enzymic saccharification of agricultural, industrial, and municipal wastes may provide sugar syrups for human and animal consumption, and carbon sources for industrial fermentations. Xylo-oligosaccharides have a variety of uses as food additives (17). Plant structural polysaccharides provide the major source of nutrients for rum-inal livestock and also play an important role in animal fodder. Pretreatment of forage crops with polysacchar-ide-degrading enzymes improves the nutritional qual
Toxicology is the discipline used to predict undesirable biological or adverse effects in the living organisms as a consequence of exposure to, for instance, chemicals in our environment, both man-made as well as naturally occurring. A practical definition of an adverse change is the following any treatment-related alteration from baseline that diminishes an organism's ability to survive, reproduce, or adapt to the environment.39 The discipline forms part of the administration of chemicals in our society, such as medicines, food additives, pesticides, and industrial and
The most remarkable quality of thermolysin is its application to the synthesis of peptides especially the artificial peptide sweetener, aspartame (L-Asp-L-Phe-OMe). Sweetener peptides L-Asp-L-Phe-OEt and l-Asp-L-Tyr-OMe are also synthesized by thermolysin. Thermolysin has been used to digest animal and plant proteins, and the hydrolysates are used as seasonings and condiments and for production of amino acids. Soy protein hydrolysates are used as raw materials in production of soy sauce and as an alternative to soy sauce. It has been reported that peptides produced by digesting soy proteins, fish proteins, etc., with ther-molysin show some physiological effects such as hypo-tensive effect, opioidlike effect, bowel contraction, repression of Alzheimer's disease, etc. By hydrolysis of dried bonito muscle by thermolysin, eight inhibitory peptides against angiotensin-I converting enzyme have been isolated. Among them, L-Leu-L-Lys-L-Pro-L-Gln-L-Met shows the most potent inhibitory activity...
Numerous efforts and papers, as well as standardized procedures for the characterization of immobilized biocatalysts, have been published in recent decades. The scientific and technical progress may be questioned in the majority of the papers (35). A remarkable issue, however, might be the application of bioca-talysts for synthesis of a broad range of products, most importantly in the sectors of food, food ingredients, and pharmaceuticals, and recently in glycobiology for making oligosaccharides and glycosides, and in organic chemistry, including nonaqueous systems and the hydrolysis and modification of fats and products derived therefrom, for surfactants (34 141-190).
Potent C13-norisoprenoid flavorants in fruit- and plant-derived products, such as theaspiranes, viti-spiranes, edulans, and -damascenone, are similarly generated from relevant progenitors by acid-catalyzed reactions. The major pathways leading to these flavor compounds are discussed in the review by Winterhalter (42). For example, -damascenone, which is among the most potent flavoring substances known to date (odor threshold 2 ppt in water floral, fruity, and iononelike odor) (43), can be generated from multiple glycosylated precursors detected in fruits and plants (42).
Probiotic bacteria may express specific genes resulting in production of different biological macromolecules when cultured in milk or dairy products. As an example, L. bulgaricus strains may produce different amounts and types of heteropolysaccharides when grown in milk (Bouzar, 1996). Heteropolysaccharides rich in arabinose content were produced by specific L. bulgaricus strains. Carbohydrates produced by LAB may act as prebiotics for other organisms. Prebiotics are defined as nondigestible food ingredients that may beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth or the activity of beneficial bacteria. Infants fed milk with fermented yogurt cultures including L. casei had increased yields of lactobacilli in feces and decreased amounts of enzymatic bacterial markers b-galactosidase and b-glucuronidase (Guerin-Danan, 1998). Interestingly, infants fed traditional yogurt yielded increased numbers of enterococci in feces and reduced percentages of branched-chain or...
In the 1970s, the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) of the FAO WHO developed tox-icological requirements for enzyme products (7) based on the following classification system enzymes from edible tissues of animals enzymes from edible parts of plants and enzymes from microbial origin, including microorganisms known to be present or used for food, microorganisms known to be harmless contaminants in food, and microorganisms unknown in food. The E.U. Novel Food Regulation was finally adopted in January 1997 and entered into force in May of that year (14). This regulation covers novel foods and food ingredients, but, in contrast to the Dutch Novel Food Law, additives (including processing aids) are outside its scope. The SCOOP task force finished its work at the end of 2000. The report however, has not yet been published at the time of this writing. One of the main conclusions the SCOOP task force drew was that the present definitions on additives and processing aids do not...
Office International des Epizooties (OIE) (http www.oie.int). The OIE is the international body for information on animal diseases around the world, providing information on the status of global animal diseases and zoonoses, scientific techniques in animal health, surveillance and risk analysis, and codes for sanitary safety and biosecurity requirements. The publications list is comprehensive with material on disease distribution, quarantine, surveillance, risk assessment, sampling, diagnostic tests, laboratory and veterinary services, verifying freedom from disease, and food contamination.
Bial recombinant chymosins will be improved through genetic engineering. The production of cheese is expanding worldwide, and the market for rennets will therefore continue to increase. Development of cheeselike products as food ingredients is a growth area, and it is likely that the application of proteinases and lipases in the production of such products will increase. The use of proteinases and peptidases to produce protein hydrolysates with specific functional, nutritional, or physiological properties appears to be very promising and has been attracting increasing attention.
To ensure consistency and to avoid interlaboratory variations in reporting. Reporting laboratories are required to adhere to an overall incident response structure that requires emergency (24-hour) availability and strict guidelines for sample handling, covering analysis, custody, and sample disposal. Other similar response networks exist to respond to an attack on the nation's food supply, such as the Food Emergency Response Network (FERN), which has been established jointly by the FDA and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The FERN has also established a laboratory system that communicates with the LRN network. Although the main focus of this network is the response to food contamination issues, the network is set up to handle water-borne events, and protocols are in place to deal with water testing. Any jurisdictional issues in the case of any hazardous materials incident are resolved under a federal mandate regarding the Incident Command System Unified Command (ICS UC) (U.S....
Attention therefore focused on the two remaining targets parents and GPs. Over-the-counter medicines were excluded because qualitative research indicated a resistance to change beyond the means of the initiative to influence. The attitude of parents to the sugar-free issue was related to social class lower social class (IV and V) mothers expected their general medical practitioner to prescribe the sugar-free alternative without prompting if it was available and appropriate higher social class (I and II) mothers were more engaged with the issue, although some were wary of artificial sweeteners.
United States Food and Drug Administration. Toxicological Principles for the Safety Assessment of Direct Food Additives and Color Additives Used in Foods, Redbook I. Bureau of Foods, 1982. USFDA. United States Food and Drug Administration. Toxicological Principles for the Safety Assessment of Direct Food Additives and Color Additives Used in Foods, Redbook II. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Draft. USEPA. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Health Effects Testing Guidelines, Part 798, Subpart F-Genetic Toxicity. Fed Reg 50 39435-39458, 1985. USEPA. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Guidelines for Mutagenicity Risk Assessment. Fed Reg 51 34006-34012, 1986.
Benzoic acid also has widespread use in the food industry. It occurs naturally in raspberries, cranberries, plums prunes, cinnamon, and cloves (Doors 1993). As an antifungal food additives, the water-soluble sodium and potassium salts and the fat-soluble acid form are suitable for food and beverages with a pH below 4.5. Benzoates have little effect at neutral pH values. They are not as effective as sorbates at pH 5.0 (Table 2), but their effectiveness increases at lower pH values.
Case-control studies suggest that dietary V-nitroso compounds (Dahlquist et al. 1990) and nitrite (Dahlquist et al. 1990 Virtanen et al. 1994b) increase the risk of type 1 diabetes in children. Also mother's intake of nitrite at the time of pregnancy was positively related to the risk of type 1 diabetes in children independently of child's nitrite intake (Virtanen et al. 1994b). Nitrate is a naturally occurring compound in vegetables. Nitrate and nitrite are both used as food additives in the processing of meat products. In food and the human gastrointestinal tract nitrate is reduced to nitrite by bacteria, and V-nitroso compounds are formed from nitrite in the chemical or bacterial nitrosation reaction with amino compounds (Slorach 1981). Vitamin C and alpha-tocopherol inhibit and thiocyanate ions accelerate the formation of V-nitroso compounds (Leaf et al. 1989).
Given the deleterious effects of PPO activity upon the sensory and nutritional quality of fresh prepared produce, it is not surprising that considerable research has been devoted to inhibit the activity of this enzyme (Duncan, 1999). Sulphites have long been used as food additives to inhibit enzymic and non-enzymic discolorations, to control the growth of microorganisms and to act as bleaching agents and antioxidants (Sapers, 1993 Laurila et al., 1998). The most frequently used sulphiting agents for fresh prepared produce are sodium and potassium bisulphites and metabisulphites. Sulphites act as PPO inhibitors and antimicrobial agents and are most effective in acidic conditions (e.g. pH 3-5). For low-acid (e.g. pH 5-8) fresh prepared produce items such as mushrooms, bananas, potatoes and lettuce, sulphites have the tendency to accelerate bacterial decay by adversely affecting cell wall or membrane integrity which may stimulate the growth of certain spoilage bacteria (Duncan, 1999)....
FDA laboratories focus primarily on monitoring the food supply and ensuring the purity and potency of drugs and other pharmaceuticals. These regulatory laboratories frequently become involved in the investigation of food contamination (including ground beef, poultry) and the adulteration of drugs. FDA maintains regional laboratories in Washington, New York, Colorado, Michigan, Kansas, California, Georgia, and Arkansas, as well as specialized laboratories in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, and Massachusetts. The FDA laboratories provide testing to support investigation and compliance activities. FDA's Electronic Laboratory Exchange Network (eLEXNET) is a Web-based system for real-time sharing of laboratory data derived from foods. This system allows public health officials to compare laboratory findings and to identify outbreaks earlier.
The antimicrobial activities of extracts from several types of plants and plant parts used as flavoring agents in foods and beverages have been recognized for many years. Some of these essential oils have antifungal properties. Conner and Beuchat (1984) documented the effects of garlic and onion against yeasts and other investigators have shown these extracts to be inhibitory to molds. Alderman and Marth (1976) examined the effects of lemon and orange oils on Aspergillus flavus and found when the citrus oils were added to grapefruit juice or glucose yeast extract medium at concentrations of 3000-3500ppm, growth and aflatoxin production was suppressed. When orange oil was added to either medium at concentrations up to 7000 ppm, growth and aflatoxin production were greatly reduced although still evident. Recent publications have reported that the essential oils of anise, coriander, Roman chamomile, basil, and oregano were inhibitory to food and industrial yeasts (Chao et al. 2000...
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