Acronyms and Selected Abbreviations

ABV chemotherapy with doxorubicin, bleomycin, and vincristine ABVD chemotherapy with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, and dacarbazine AC chemotherapy with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme ADCC antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ALL acute lymphoblastic lymphocytic leukemia AlloBMT allogeneic bone marrow transplantation AML acute myeloid myelogenous leukemia APL acute promyelocytic leukemia ASCO American...

Economic Models of Prophylactic CSF 721 Cost Minimization Models

The initial economic models of prophylactic CSF administration were based on the results of previously discussed pivotal RCTs and crude estimates of direct medical costs. These cost minimization models using baseline probabilities and resource utilization from the RCT of Crawford et al. (65) and local direct institutional cost information generated average risk threshold estimates for cost savings with prophylactic rHuG-CSF use in the range of 40 (19,20). These models assumed that all patients...

Expression Of Scf And cKit mRNAs

Expression of SCF and c-kit mRNAs in tissues of the mouse during embryogenesis and after birth has been thoroughly studied by in situ hybridization (38-41). A number of important results emerged from these studies 1. During embryogenesis, expression of the mRNAs first becomes apparent with the start of organogenesis about d 8.5, and the patterns of expression become increasingly more specialized as organogenesis proceeds. For hematopoiesis, the localization of expression of the mRNAs matches...

Chimeric Growth Factor Receptor Agonists Myelopoietins Leridistem and Peg Leridistim 311 Myelopoietin

Myelopoietins are a family of proteins that are dual receptor agonists of the human IL-3 and G-CSF receptor complexes. Two members of the myelopoietin family, myelopoietin SC-68420 and leridistim, have been evaluated for their ability to enhance hematopoietic recovery in a nonhuman primate model of radiation-induced myelosup-pression (21,68). Myelopoietin (SC-68420) was initially shown to effectively stimulate bone marrow regeneration (clonogenic activity) and neutrophil recovery when...

Additional Risk Factors for Febrile Neutropenia

A number of efforts to identify risk factors for the occurrence of FN or its consequences in patients with established FN have been reported. A systematic review has been completed of published studies of risk models for FN and its consequences (51). Nearly every study of risk factors for neutropenic complications in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy has identified increasing age as a significant independent predic- Fig. 6. Hazard plot of the time in days to the first episode of febrile...

References

Biologic and clinical implications of marrow culture studies in the myelodysplastic syndromes. Semin Hematol 1996 33 163-175. 2. Greenberg PL, Mara B. The preleukemic syndrome correlation of in vitro parameters of granulopoiesis with clinical features. Am J Med 1979 66 951-958. 3. Chui DH, Clarke BJ. Abnormal erythroid progenitor cells in human preleukemia. Blood 1982 60 362-367. 4. Juvonen E, Partanen S, Knuutila S, Ruute T. Megakaryocyte colony formation by bone marrow...

Pharmacodynamics of Darbepoetin Alfa in Patients

Clinical studies with darbepoetin alfa have been conducted in the United States, European Union, Australia, Canada, and Mexico. Several studies in the nephrology setting showed that darbepoetin alfa was effective at correcting anemia at a reduced dosing frequency. Randomized dose escalation studies compared once-weekly darbepoetin alfa (0.45 Mg kg) with twice-weekly rHuEPO (50 U kg) in rHuEPO-naive predialysis patients (123). Drug dosages were adjusted, as necessary, to maintain Hb...

Hematopoietic Tree

Hematopoietic Tree

A complex, inter-related, and multistep process called hematopoiesis controls the production and development of specific bone marrow cells from immature precursor cells to functional mature blood cells. The earliest cells are stem cells and are multipotential and able to self-renew. Up to 1011 blood cells are produced in an adult human each day. The proliferation of precursor cells, the commitment to one lineage, the maturation of these cells into mature cells, and the survival of hematopoietic...

Before Chemotherapy

The stimulatory effects of PEG-rHuMGDF and rHuTPO on megakaryocyte and platelet production have been suggested in several clinical trials in patients before Fig. 11. PEG-rHuMGDF increases the platelet count in healthy humans. Healthy platelet apheresis donors were treated with a single dose of placebo (black bars), 1 pg kg (white bars), or 3 pg kg (gray bars) of PEG-rHuMGDF on d 1, and the platelet response was measured. There was no effect on the red or white cell count. (Reproduced with...

Introduction

The ability to deliver the prescribed dose of chemotherapy and or radiation therapy remains problematic owing to associated hematopoietic toxicities, which include neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Additionally, immune suppression, both acute and delayed, is a consequence of cytotoxic therapy, especially in response to dose intensification, schedule compression, or myeloablative conditioning for stem cell transplantation. New strategies applied to current hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs) as...

Severe Chronic Neutropenia Patients

The longest exposure to daily administration of filgrastim has been in patients with SCN. Daily subcutaneous injections of filgrastim for > 10 yr in over 1000 patients worldwide, documented in the Severe Chronic Neutropenia International Registry (SCNIR), lead to neither exhaustion of myelopoiesis nor to anti-G-CSF antibody production. Chronic daily administration of filgrastim to patients with SCN neither exhausts myelopoiesis nor produces anti-G-CSF antibodies, and causes relatively few...

Small Cell Lung Cancer

Given the systemic nature of SCLC, chemotherapy is the keystone in the treatment. Despite the high chemosensitivity of SCLC, with an objective response achieved in approx 80 of the patients, remission is in general short, and relapses are frequently chemoresistant. Treatment strategies to prolong remission have therefore dominated clinical trials for SCLC in the past decade. The use of alternating non-crossresistant chemotherapy, maintenance chemotherapy, or dose intensification strategies were...