Epithelial Cell Factors TLR etc

This aspect is covered in more detail elsewhere. However, one of the exciting new areas of immunology has been the recognition that epithelial cells play an active part in innate immunity and that epithelial cells can produce factors interactive with the immune system upon contact with bacteria and other antigens. Some of these factors appear to be microbicidal to Candida. For example, Pivarcsi et al. (2003) showed that antimicrobials induced from epithelial cells can kill Candida. This...

Peroxidase and Myeloperoxidase

Peroxidase originates from two main sources in the oral cavity. Salivary peroxidase is synthesized by acinar cells in major salivary glands and myeloperoxidase (MPO) is derived from the neutrophil primary granules. Monocytes also contain MPO in their primary granules, whereas macrophages are known to lack this enzyme (Marodi et al., 1991). These enzymes combine with H2O2 and thiocyanate or iodide ions to produce hypothiocyanate, or hypoiodite, which are powerful oxidizing agents. In the...

Defensins

Defensins are cationic, arginine-rich peptides containing 28 to 44 amino acids. Their molecular weights vary from 3 to 5 kDa. They all share a typical tertiary structure despite differences in primary structure. Defensins have a broad antimicrobial spectrum encompassing not only Candida but also Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. They are also chemotactic for mono-cytes, PMNs, and T cells. The highest density is found in granulocytes where defensins 1-4 may make up 10 of the total...

Stephen J Challacombe Durdana Rahman Mukesh Mistry and Julian R Naglik

Classification of Oral Candida 4. General Considerations of Oral Mucosal Immunity to 5. Humoral Immunity against Oral 5.1. Saps and Oral Humoral 5.2. Host Immune Responses to 5.3. Functional Aspects of Serum and Salivary Antibodies to Candida 46 5.4. Oral Immunity to Candida in HIV 5.5. Serum Antibodies Responses to Oral Candida Infection in Humans 47 5.6. Salivary IgA Subclass Antibodies to 6. Innate Factors against Oral Candidiasis 6.1. Epithelial Cell...

Invasive Fungal Sinusitis

Within invasive fungal sinusitis there are two distinct subtypes, acute and chronic. Acute sinusitis occurs in immunocompro-mised hosts (bone marrow transplant patients, HIV, etc.) and generally lasts for less than 4 weeks. In the literature it is commonly referred to as fulminant sinusitis, conveying the rapid disease progression and destruction affiliated with the infection (Ferguson, 2000a). Characteristically the disease progresses in a matter of days, with hyphal growth and extension...

Structure of the Oral Mucosa

The oral mucosa is a highly permeable tissue, with regional variations, as the type and keratinization status of the epithelial cell layer varies in different locations of the oral cavity. The oral cavity is lined by at least four different types of mucosa (Squier and Finkelstein, 2003). While nonkeratinized epithelium lines the majority of the oral cavity, covering the hard palate and gingiva is the masticatory mucosa, which receives the most severe mechanical forces and has stratified...

Classification of Oral Candida Infections

Candida species can be found as commensals in the mouths approximately 40 of normal subjects in amounts up to approximately 800 colony forming units (CFU) ml. There is usually some underlying precipitating factor for oral candidiasis, often an immunodeficiency and in patients with various forms of candidiasis (Table 3.2), salivary counts of greater than 20,000 CFU ml may be found. Oral candidiasis is a common condition, especially in patients with xerostomia, those taking immunosup-pressive...