Innate Immune Effector Function

Oral epithelial cells are constantly exposed to microbial challenge and therefore play an important role as the first line of defense against infection. In addition to secretion of natural antibiotic peptides (i.e., calprotectin and defensins) with antifungal

Figure 2.1. Yeast and pseudohyphal forms of C. albicans do not injure oral epithelial cells or trigger a proinflammatory cytokine response. SCC15 oral epithelial cells were cocultured with C. albicans SC5314 (wt.), or its congenic yeast (efg1/efg1/cph1/cph) and pseudohyphal mutants (tupl/tupl), at increasing fungal cell to epithelial cell ratios, for up to 20 h. IL-1a and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release were quantified in culture supernatants using colorimetric assays (left panel). The cellular morphology of these strains, cocultured with oral epithelial cells for 5 h, is shown on the right panel. Cultures were stained with Calcofluor White and epithelial cells are indicated by the white arrows.

Figure 2.1. Yeast and pseudohyphal forms of C. albicans do not injure oral epithelial cells or trigger a proinflammatory cytokine response. SCC15 oral epithelial cells were cocultured with C. albicans SC5314 (wt.), or its congenic yeast (efg1/efg1/cph1/cph) and pseudohyphal mutants (tupl/tupl), at increasing fungal cell to epithelial cell ratios, for up to 20 h. IL-1a and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release were quantified in culture supernatants using colorimetric assays (left panel). The cellular morphology of these strains, cocultured with oral epithelial cells for 5 h, is shown on the right panel. Cultures were stained with Calcofluor White and epithelial cells are indicated by the white arrows.

activity, recently, a contact-dependent oral epithelial cell anti- Candida activity was described, which was significantly greater than that of vaginal epithelial cells (Steele et al., 2000). More specifically, primary human oral epithelial cells inhibited the growth of 40-85% of C. albicans at ratios ranging between 0.6 and 1, and 5:1 effector to target. This antimicrobial activity extended to other Candida species, including C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis, and C. krusei. Saliva appeared to have no effect on growth inhibition and cells isolated from HIV+ patients with OPC had reduced antifungal activity as compared to HIV+OPC- controls (Steele et al., 2000). Mechanistic studies also confirmed a growth inhibitory rather than a fungicidal effect (Nomanbhoy et al., 2002), and further demonstrated that an acid labile molecule was involved in the growth-inhibiting interactions (Steele et al., 2001; Yano et al., in press), although the specific molecule was not identified.

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