Saps and Oral Humoral Immunity

The Saps appear to play a major role in virulence by mediating adherence, causing tissue damage, and evading of host immune responses (reviewed by Naglik et al., 2003b). Ten SAP genes have been identified that encode a proteinase family between 35 and 50 kDa (Hube, 2000), which include two major subfamilies based on nucleotide acid sequences identity (SAP1-3 and 4-6).

The contribution of the Saps to C. albi-cans pathogenesis has been clearly demonstrated using SAP-deficient mutants and proteinase inhibitors. These studies demonstrated that different SAP genes appear to be essential for mucosal (SAP1-3) (Watts et al., 1998; De Bernardis et al., 1999; Schaller et al., 1999) and systemic (SAP4-6) (Hube et al., 1997; Sanglard et al., 1997) infections. The Sap isoenzymes appear to have a variety of functions in vivo, which are probably called upon during different stages and types of C. albicans infections. There might be an expectation, therefore, that responses against different Saps might be different in mucosal and systemic candidiasis.

Recently, we have analysed SAP1-8 expression in over 130 subjects with oral and vaginal C. albicans infection or asymptomatic carriage (Naglik et al., 1999, 2003a,b). SAP2 and SAP5 were the most common

Table 3.3. Serum and Salivary Antibodies to Candida in Humans

Diagnosis Patients Controls Antigen Salivary antibodies Serum antibodies Method Reference

Table 3.3. Serum and Salivary Antibodies to Candida in Humans

Diagnosis Patients Controls Antigen Salivary antibodies Serum antibodies Method Reference

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