Source: Adapted from A.M. Katz (ed.), Physiology of the Heart, 3rd Ed., 2001.
Fig. 6. Typical cardiac action potentials (slow on top and fast below). The resting membrane potential, threshold potential, and phases of depolarization (0-4) are shown.
Ion Concentrations for Mammalian Myocytes
Intracellular concentration (millimolar)
Extracellular concentration (millimolar)
Sodium (Na) Potassium (K) Chloride (Cl) Calcium (Ca)
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.