Source: Adapted from A.M. Katz (ed.), Physiology of the Heart, 3rd Ed., 2001.

Fig. 6. Typical cardiac action potentials (slow on top and fast below). The resting membrane potential, threshold potential, and phases of depolarization (0-4) are shown.

Table 1

Ion Concentrations for Mammalian Myocytes

Intracellular concentration (millimolar)

Extracellular concentration (millimolar)

Sodium (Na) Potassium (K) Chloride (Cl) Calcium (Ca)

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

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