Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven to be extremely versatile and useful for studying cardiac anatomy and function, both for providing a deeper understanding of cardiac physiology and as a means to diagnose cardiac diseases. The capabilities of MRI as a tomographic imaging modality to capture, with high spatial resolution, the anatomy of 3D structures was already well appreciated before the first attempts were made to apply MRI to the heart. Cardiac motion, compounded by respiratory motion and blood flow in the ventricular cavities and large vessels, initially imposed formidable barriers to the acquisition of artifact-free magnetic resonance (MR) images that could depict the cardiac anatomy with sufficient detail. It has taken well over 10 years for cardiac MRI to mature to the point at which it can be applied in a routine fashion in the clinic. In the future, other cardiac imaging modalities such as ultrasound imaging and nuclear imaging may be partially eclipsed by MRI for selected applications.
This chapter provides a condensed review of the basic principles of MRI and introduces some of the concepts and terminology necessary to understand the application of MRI to the heart. We then describe a wide range of cardiac applications of
From: Handbook of Cardiac Anatomy, Physiology, and Devices Edited by: P. A. Iaizzo © Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ
MRI, including those that should be of interest to the biomedical engineer. Our choice of topics is rather judicious because a complete exposition of the principles and applications of cardiac MRI could now fill an entire book.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.