the Lillehei Heart Institute in their funding of illustrator Martin Finch, who prepared several of the original figures; Gary Williams for his computer expertise and assistance with numerous figures; William Gallagher and Charles Soule, who made sure the laboratory kept running smoothly while many of us were busy writing or editing; Dick Bianco for his support of our lab and this book project; the Chairman of the Department of Surgery, Dr. David Dunn, for his support and encouragement; and the Biomedical Engineering Institute at the University of Minnesota, headed by Dr. Jeffrey McCullough, who supported this project by funding the Cardiovascular Physiology Interest Group (most of whose members contributed chapters).

Finally, I would like to thank my family and friends for their support of my career and their assistance over the years. Without such encouragement, I would not have even dreamed of taking on such an ambitious project. Specifically, I would like to thank my wife Marge, my three daughters, Maria, Jenna, and Hanna, my mom Irene, and siblings, Mike, Chris, Mark, and Susan, for always being there for me. On a personal note, some of my motivation for working on this project comes from the memory of my father Anthony, who succumbed to sudden cardiac death at too early an age, and from the positive encouragement ofmy uncle Tom Halicki, who is doing well seven years after a heart transplant.

Paul A. Iaizzo, PhD


Preface v

Contributors ix

Companion CD xi

The Visible Heart® xiii

Part I. Introduction

1 General Features of the Cardiovascular System

Paul A. Iaizzo 3

Part II. Anatomy

2 Cardiac Development

Brad J. Martinsen and Jamie L. Lohr 15

3 Anatomy of the Thoracic Wall, Pulmonary Cavities, and Mediastinum

Kenneth P. Roberts and Anthony J. Weinhaus 25

4 Anatomy of the Human Heart

Anthony J. Weinhaus and Kenneth P. Roberts 51

5 Comparative Cardiac Anatomy

Alexander J. Hill and Paul A. Iaizzo 81

6 The Coronary System and Associated Medical Devices

Ryan Lahm and Paul A. Iaizzo 93

7 The Pericardium

Edward Chinchoy, Michael R. Ujhelyi,

Alexander J. Hill, Nicholas D. Skadsberg, and Paul A. Iaizzo 101

Part III. Physiology and Assessment

8 Cardiac Myocytes

Vincent A. Barnett 113

9 The Cardiac Conduction System

Timothy G. Laske and Paul A. Iaizzo 123

10 Autonomic Nervous System

Kevin Fitzgerald, Robert F. Wilson, and Paul A. Iaizzo 137

11 Cardiac and Vascular Receptors and Signal Transduction: Physiological and Pathophysiological Roles of Important Cardiac and Vascular Receptors

Daniel C. Sigg 149

12 Reversible and Irreversible Damage of the Myocardium: New Ischemic Syndromes,

Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury, and Cardioprotection James A. Coles, Jr., Daniel C. Sigg, and Paul A. Iaizzo 161

13 The Effects of Anesthetic Agents on Cardiac Function

Michael K. Loushin 171

14 Blood Pressure, Heart Tones, and Diagnoses

George Bojanov 181

15 Basic ECG Theory, Recordings, and Interpretation

Anthony Dupre, Sarah Vincent, and Paul A. Iaizzo 191

16 Mechanical Aspects of Cardiac Performance

Michael K. Loushin and Paul A. Iaizzo 203

17 Energy Metabolism in the Normal and Diseased Heart

18 Introduction to Echocardiography

Jamie L. Lohr 241

19 Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Michael Jerosch-Herold, Ravi Teja Seethamraju, and Carsten Rickers 249

Part IV. Devices and Therapies

20 Historical Perspective of Cardiovascular Devices and Techniques

Dee M. McManus, Monica A. Mahre, and Paul A. Iaizzo 273

21 Animal Models for Cardiac Research

Robert P. Gallegos, Andrew L. Rivard, and Richard W. Bianco 287

22 Cardiac Arrhythmias and Transcatheter Ablation

Fei Lu, Scott Sakaguchi, and David G. Benditt 303

23 Pacing and Defibrillation

Timothy G. Laske, Anna M. Legreid, and Paul A. Iaizzo 323

24 Biventricular Pacing for Congestive Heart Failure

Fei Lu and Leslie W. Miller 349

25 Cardiac Mapping Systems

Nicholas D. Skadsberg,

Timothy G. Laske, and Paul A. Iaizzo 361

26 Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Cardioplegia

J. Ernesto Molina 371

27 Heart Valve Disease

Robert P. Gallegos and R. Morton Bolman III 385

28 Less-Invasive Cardiac Surgery

Kenneth K. Liao 405

29 Treatment of Cardiac Septal Defects:

The Evolution of the Amplatzer Family of Devices

John L. Bass 413

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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