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S1 S2

Fig. 15. Central venous pressure wave. The central venous pressure waveform consists of a, c, v waves and x and y descents. The a wave is associated with atrial contraction. The c wave occurs as the tricuspid valve bulges up toward the right atrium during early ventricular systole. The v wave is associated with passive filling of the right atrium with closed valve. The x descent corresponds to the tricuspid valve being pulled down toward the right ventricle during late systole. The y descent corresponds with opening of the tricuspid valve as the right atrium begins to empty. CVP, central venous pressure; ECG, electrocardiogram. S1, heart sound 1; S2, heart sound 2.

Fig. 15. Central venous pressure wave. The central venous pressure waveform consists of a, c, v waves and x and y descents. The a wave is associated with atrial contraction. The c wave occurs as the tricuspid valve bulges up toward the right atrium during early ventricular systole. The v wave is associated with passive filling of the right atrium with closed valve. The x descent corresponds to the tricuspid valve being pulled down toward the right ventricle during late systole. The y descent corresponds with opening of the tricuspid valve as the right atrium begins to empty. CVP, central venous pressure; ECG, electrocardiogram. S1, heart sound 1; S2, heart sound 2.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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