References

1. Geva, T. (1998) Echocardiography and Doppler ultrasound, in The Science and Practice of Pediatric Cardiolog y, 2nd Ed. (Garson, A., et al., eds.), Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 789-843.

2. Vermilion, R.P. (1997) Basic physical principles, in Echocardiography in Pediatric Heart Disease (Snider, R., ed.), Mosby-Year Book, St. Louis, MO, pp. 1-10.

3. Snider, R., Serwer, G., and Ritter, S. (eds.). (1997) Echocardiography in Pediatric Heart Disease, Mosby-Year Book, St. Louis, MO.

4. Colan, S.D., Parness, I.A., and Spevak, P.J. (1992) Developmental modulation of myocardial mechanics: age and growth related alterations in afterload and contractility. J Am Coll Cardiol. 19, 619-629.

5. Gutgessel, H.P., Paquet, M., Duff, D.F., and McNamara, D.G. (1977) Evaluation of left ventricular size and function by echocardiography: results in normal children. Circulation. 56, 457-462.

6. Vermilion, R.P. (1997) Technology and instrumentation, in Echocardiography in Pediatric Heart Disease, 2nd Ed. Mosby, St Louis, MO.

Fig. 6. (A,B) Two-dimensional images from subcostal windows and (C,D) suprasternal notch windows. Subcostal views provide orientation of the heart relative to the abdominal organs as in A, which shows a rightward liver and leftward cardiac apex. Subcostal windows also provide excellent four-chamber views, as well as short-axis views, of the interatrial septum in smaller individuals, as shown in A. B is a subcostal view showing the descending thoracic aorta at the level of the diaphragm. C is a suprasternal notch view of a normal aortic arch. D shows the severe hypoplasia of the ascending aorta seen in a patient with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) caused by aortic atresia. LA, left atrium; Ao, aorta; AscAo, ascending aorta; IV, innominate vein; RA, right atrium; RPA, right pulmonary artery.

Fig. 6. (A,B) Two-dimensional images from subcostal windows and (C,D) suprasternal notch windows. Subcostal views provide orientation of the heart relative to the abdominal organs as in A, which shows a rightward liver and leftward cardiac apex. Subcostal windows also provide excellent four-chamber views, as well as short-axis views, of the interatrial septum in smaller individuals, as shown in A. B is a subcostal view showing the descending thoracic aorta at the level of the diaphragm. C is a suprasternal notch view of a normal aortic arch. D shows the severe hypoplasia of the ascending aorta seen in a patient with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) caused by aortic atresia. LA, left atrium; Ao, aorta; AscAo, ascending aorta; IV, innominate vein; RA, right atrium; RPA, right pulmonary artery.

6a. Snider, A.R., Serwer, G.A., Ritter, S.B., and Gersony, R.A. (eds.) (1997) Echocardiography in Pediatric Heart Disease. Mosby-Year Book, St. Louis, MO, pp. 11-21

7. Danford, D.A. and Murphy, D.J., Jr. (1998) Basic foundations of echocardiography and Doppler ultrasound, in The Science and Practice of Pediatric Cardiology (Garson, A., et al., eds.), Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 539-558.

8. Allan, L. (2000) The normal fetal heart, in Textbook of Fetal Cardiology (Allan, L., Hornberger, L., and Sharland, G., eds.), Greenwich Medical Media Limited, London, UK, pp. 55-91.

9. Tworetzky, W. and Marshall, A.C. (2003) Balloon valvuloplasty for congenital heart disease in the fetus. Clin Perinatol. 30, 541550.

10. Tulzer, G., Artz, W., Franklin, R.C., Loughna, P.V., Mair, R., and Gardiner, H.M. (2002) Fetal pulmonary valvuloplasty for critical pulmonary stenosis or atresia with intact septum. Lancet. 360, 15671568.

11. Randolph, G.R., Hagler, D.J., Connolly, H.M., et al. (2002) Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography during surgery for congenital heart defects. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 124, 1176-1182.

12. Stevenson, J.G. (1999) Incidence of complications in pediatric transesophageal echocardiography: experience in 1650 cases. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 12, 527-532.

13. Rousou, J.A., Tighe, D.A., Garb, J.L., et al. (2000) Risk of dysphagia after transesophageal echocardiography during cardiac operations. Ann Thorac Surg. 69, 486-489.

14. Ziada, K.M., Tuzcu, E.M., and Nissen, S.E. (1999) Application of intravascular ultrasound imaging in understanding and guiding percutaneous therapy for atherosclerotic coronary disease. Cardiol Rev. 7, 289-300.

15. Costello, J.M., Wax, D.F., Binns, H.J., Backer, C.L., Mavroudis, C., and Pahl, E. (2003) A comparison of intravascular ultrasound with coronary angiography for evaluation of transplant coronary artery disease in pediatric heart transplant recipients. J Heart Lung Transplant. 22, 44-49.

16. Srinivasan, S., Baldwin H.S., Aristizabal, O., Kwee, L., Labow, M., and Turnbull, D.H. (1998) Noninvasive, in utero imaging of mouse embryonic heart development with 40-MHz echocardiography. Circulation. 98, 912-918.

17. Zhou Y.Q., Foster, F.S., Qu D.W., Zhang M., Harasiewic, K.A., and Adamson, S.L. (2002) Applications for multifrequency ultrasound biomicroscopy in mice from implantation to adulthood. Physiol Genomics. 10, 113-126.

18. Visualsonics, Insight Through In Vivo Imaging, Vevo 660 System Product Information, Visualsonics, 3080 Yonge Street, Suite 6020, Box 89, Toronto, Canada. See website: (www.visualsonics.com).

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