1. Gardner, R.M. (1996) Accuracy and reliability of disposable pressure transducers coupled with modern monitors. Crit Care Med. 24, 879-882.

2. Skeehan, T.M. and Thys, D.M. (1995) Monitoring of the cardiac surgical patient, in A Practical Approach to Cardiac Anesthesia, 2nd Ed. (Hensley, F.A. and Martin, D.E., eds.), Little, Brown, and Company, Boston, MA, p. 102.

3. Gorback, M.S. (1988) Considerations in the interpretation of systemic pressure monitoring, in Complications in Critical Care Medicine (Lumb, P.D. and Bryan-Brown, C.W., eds.), Year Book, Chicago, IL, p. 296.

4. Shasby, D.M., Dauber, I.M., Pfister, S., et al. (1980) Swan-Ganz catheter location and left atrial pressure determine the accuracy of wedge pressure when positive end expiratory pressure is used. Chest. 80, 666-670.

5. Snyder, J.V. and Carroll, G.C. (1982) Tissue oxygenation: a physiologic approach to a clinical problem. Curr Probl Surg. 19, 650.

6. Stanley, T.E. and Reves, J.G. (1994) Cardiovascular monitoring, in Anesthesia, 4th ed. (Miller, R.D., ed.), Churchill Livingstone, Boston, MA, p. 1167.

7. Swan, H.J.C., Ganz, W., Forrester, J., Marcus, H., Diamon, G., and Chonette, D. (1970) Catheterization of the heart in man with use of a flow-directed balloon-tipped catheter. N Engl J Med. 283, 447451.

8. American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Pulmonary Artery Catheterization (2003) Practice guidelines for pulmonary artery catheterization. Anesthesiology. 99, 989-1014.

9. West, J.B., Dollery, C.T., and Naimark, A. (1964) Distribution of blood flow in isolated lung; relation to vascular and alveolar pressures. J Appl Physiol. 19, 713-724.

10. Wesseling, K.H. (1996) Finger arterial pressure measurement with Finapres. Z Kardiol. 3, 38-44.

11. Brandstetter, R.D., Grant, G.R., Estilo, M., Rahim, R., Sing, K., and Gitler, B. (1998) Swan-Ganz catheter: misconceptions, pitfalls, and incomplete user knowledge-an identified trilogy in need of correction. Heart Lung. 27, 218-222.

12. Wittnich, C., Trudel, J., Zidulka, A., and Chiu, R.C. (1986) Misleading "pulmonary wedge pressure" after pneumonectomy: its importance in postoperative fluid therapy. Ann Thorac Surg. 42, 192-196.

13. Van Aken, H. and Vandermeersch, E. (1988) Reliability of PCWP as an index for left ventricular preload. Br J Anaesth. 60, 85-95.

14. Stanley, T.E. and Reves, J.G. (1994) Cardiovascular monitoring, in Anesthesia, 4th Ed. (Miller, R.D., ed.), Churchill Livingstone, Boston, MA, pp. 1184-1185.

15. Fegler, G. (1954) Measurement of cardiac output in anesthetized animals by thermodilution method. Q J Exp Physiol. 39, 153.

16. Pearl, R.G.B., Rosenthal, M.H., Mielson, L., et al. (1986) Effect of injectate volume and temperature on thermodilution cardiac output determination. Anesthesiology. 64, 798.

17. Reich, D.L., Moskowitz, D.M., and Kaplan, J.A. (1999) Hemodynamic monitoring, in Cardiac Anesthesia, 4th Ed. (Kaplan, J.A., Reich, D.L., and Konstaelt, S.N., eds.), Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.

18. Burchell, S.A., Yu, M., Takiguchi, S.A., Ohta, R.M., and Myers, S.A. (1997) Evaluation of a continuous cardiac output and mixed venous oxygen saturation catheter in critically ill surgical patients. Crit Care Med. 25, 388-391.

19. Poli d Figueiredo, L.F., Malbouisson, L.M.S., Varicoda, E.Y., et al. (1999) Thermal filament continuous thermodilution cardiac output delayed response limits its value during acute hemodynamic instability. J Trauma. 47, 288-293.

20. Mihaljevi, T., vonSegesser, L.K., Tonz, M., et al. (1995) Continuous versus bolus thermodilution cardiac output measurements: a comparative study. Crit Care Med. 23, 944-949.

21. Mihm,F.G., Gettinger, A., Hanson, C.W., et al. (1998) A multicenter evaluation of a new continuous cardiac output pulmonary artery catheter system. Crit Care Med. 26, 1346-1350.

22. Della, R.G., Costa, M.G., Pompei, L., et al. (2002) Continuous and intermittent cardiac output measurement: pulmonary artery catheter versus aortic transpulmonary technique. Br J Anaesth. 88, 350-356.

23. Pamley, C.L. and Pousman, R.M. (2002) Noninvasive cardiac output monitoring. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 15, 675-680.

24. Christensen, P., Clemensen, P., Andersen, P.K., et al. (2000) Thermodilution versus inert gas rebreathing for estimation of effective pulmonary blood flow. Crit Care Med. 28, 51-56.

25. Imhoff, M., Lehner, J.H., and Lohlein, D. (2000) Noninvasive whole-body electrical bioempedance cardiac output and invasive thermodilution cardiac output in high-risk surgical patients. Crit Care Med. 28, 2812-2818.

26. Shoemaker, W.C., Wo, C.C., Bishop, M.H., et al. (1994) Multicenter trial of a new thoracic electrical bioempedance device for cardiac output estimation. Crit Care Med. 22, 1907-1912.

27. Linton, R.A., Band, D.M., and Haire, K.M. (1994) A new method of measuring cardiac output in main using lithium dilution. Br J Anaesth. 71, 262-266.

28. Linton, R., Band, D., O'Brian, T., et al. (1997) Lithium dilution cardiac output measurement: a comparison with thermodilution. Crit Care Med. 25, 1767-1768.

29. Kurita, T., Morita, K., Kato, S., et al. (1997) Comparison of the accuracy of the lithium dilution technique with the thermodilution technique for measurement of cardiac output. Br J Anaesth. 79, 770-775.

30. Rivers, E., Nguyen, B., Havstad, S., et al. (2001) Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med. 345, 1368-1377.

31. Band, D.M., Linton, R.A., Jonas, M.M., et al. (1997) The shape of indicator dilution curves used for cardiac output measurement in man. J Physiol. 498, 225-229.

32. Shoemaker, W.C. (2002) New approaches to trauma management using severity of illness and outcome prediction based on noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring. Surg Clin North Am. 82, 245-255.

33. Shoemaker, W.C., Wo, C.C., Chan, L., et al. (2001) Outcome prediction of emergency patients by noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring. Chest. 120, 528-537.

34. Drazner, M.H., Thompson, B., Rosenberg, P.B., et al. (2002) Comparisons of impedance cardiography with invasive hemodynamic measurements in patients with heart failure secondary to ischemic or nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol. 89, 993-995.

35. Binder, J.C. and Parkin, W.G. (2001) Non-invasive cardiac output determination: comparison of a new partial-rebreathing technique with themodilution. Anaesth Intensive Care. 28, 427-430.

36. Maxwell, R.A., Gibson, J.B., Slade, J.B., et al. (2001) Noninvasive cardiac output by partial CO2 rebreathing after severe chest trauma. J Trauma. 51, 849-853.

37. Tachibana, K., Imanaka, H., Miyano, H., et al. (2002) Effect of ventilatory settings on accuracy of cardiac output measurement using partial CO2 rebreathing. Anesthesiology. 96, 96-102.

38. Botero, M. and Lobato, E.B. (2001) Advances in noninvasive cardiac output monitoring: an update. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 15, 631-640.

39. Kotake, Y., Moriyama, K., Innami, Y., et al. (2003) Performance of noninvasive partial CO2 rebreathing cardiac output and continuous thermodilution cardiac output in patients undergoing aortic reconstruction surgery. Anesthesiology. 99, 283-288.

40. Snyder, J.V. and Carroll, G.C. (1982) Tissue oxygenation: a physiologic approach to a clinical problem. Curr Probl Surg. 19, 650.

41. Keech, J. and Reed, R.L., II. (2003) Reliability of mixed venous oxygen saturation as an indicator of the oxygen extraction ratio demonstrated by a large patient data set. J Trauma. 54, 236-241.

42. Jain, A., Shroff, S.G., Jnicki, J.S., et al. (1991) Relation between venous oxygen saturation and cardiac index. Nonlinearity and normalization for oxygen uptake and hemoglobin. Chest. 99, 14031409.

43. Inomata, S., Nishikawa, T., and Taguchi, M. (1994) Continuous monitoring of mixed venous oxygen saturation for detecting alterations in cardiac output after discontinuation of cardiopulmonary bypass. Br J Anaesth. 72, 11-16.

44. Rivers, E., Nguyen, B., Vastad, S., et al. (2001) Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med. 345, 1368-1377.

45. Kraft, P., Steltzer, H., Hiesmayr, M., et al. (1993) Mixed venous oxygen saturation in critically ill septic shock patients: the role of defined events. Chest. 103, 900-906.

46. Waller, J.L., Kaplan, J.A., Bauman, L.I., et al. (1982) Clinical evaluation of a new fiberoptic catheter oximeter during cardiac surgery. Anesthe Analg. 61, 676-679.

47. Vedrinne, C., Bastien, O., De Varax, R., et al. (1997) Predictive factors for usefulness of fiberoptic pulmonary artery catheter for continuous oxygen saturation in mixed venous blood monitoring in cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg. 85, 2-10.

48. Goldman, R.H., Klughaupt, M., Metcalf, T., et al. (1968) Measured central venous oxygen saturation in patients with myocardial infarction. Circulation. 38, 941-946.

49. Berridye, J.C. (1992) Influence of cardiac output on correlation between mixed venous and central venous oxygen saturation. Br J Anaesth. 89, 409-410.

50. Davies, G.G., Mendehall, J., and Symrey, T. (1988) Measurement of right atrial oxygen saturation by fiberoptic oximetry accurately reflects mixed venous oxygen saturation in swine. J Clin Monit. 4, 99-102.

51. Rivers, E.P., Ander, D.S., and Powell, D. (2001) Central venous oxygen saturation monitoring in the critically ill patient. Curr Opin Crit Care. 7, 204-211.

52. Lee, J., Wright, F., Barber, R., et al. (1972) Central venous oxygen saturation in shock: a study in man. Anesthesiology. 36, 472-478.

53. Scheinman, M.M., Brown, M.A., and Rapaport, E. (1969) Critical assessment of use of central venous oxygen saturation as a mirror of mixed venous oxygen in severely ill cardiac patients. Circulation. 40, 165-172.

54. Edwards, J.D. and Mayall, R.M. (1998) Importance of the sampling site for measurement of mixed venous oxygen saturation in shock. Crit Care Med. 26, 1356-1360.

55. Ratcliffe, M.B., Gupta, K.B., Streicher, T.J., et al. (1995) Use of sonomicrometry and multidimensional scaling to determine the three-dimensional coordinates of multiple cardiac locations: feasibility and initial implementation. IEEE Trans BiomedEng. 42, 587597.

56. Gorman, J.H., III, Gupta, K.B., Streicher, J.T., et al. (1996) Dynamic three-dimensional imaging of the mitral valve and left ventricle by rapid sonomicrometry array localization. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 112, 712-725.

57. Meyer, S. and Wolf, P.D. (1997) Application of sonomicrometry and multidimensional scaling to cardiac catheter tracking. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 44, 1061-1067.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment