1. Ho, S.Y., Kilpatrick, L., Kanai, T., Germroth, P.G., Thompson, R.P., and Anderson, R.H. (1995) The architecture of the atrioventricular conduction axis in dog compared to man—its significance to ablation of the atrioventricular nodal approaches. Cardiovasc Electro-physiol. 6, 26-39.

2. Racker, D.K. and Kadish, A.H. (2000) Proximal atrioventricular bundle, atrioventricular node, and distal atrioventricular bundle are distinct anatomic structures with unique histological characteristics and innervation. Circulation. 101, 1049-1059.

3. Furman, S. (1995) A brief history of cardiac stimulation and elec-trophysiology—the past 50 years and the next century. North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology (NASPE) Keynote Address, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

4. His, W., Jr. (1893) Die Tätigkeit des embryonalen herzens und deren bedcutung fur die lehre von der herzbewegung beim erwachsenen.

Artbeit Med Klin Leipzig. 1, 14-49.

5. Tawara, S. (1906) Das Reizleitungssystem des Saugetierherzens: Eine anatomisch-histologische Studie uber das Atrioventrikular-bundel und die Purkinjeschen Faden. Gustav Fischer, Jena, Germany, pp. 9-70, 114-156.

6. Sorensen, E.R., Manna, D., and McCourt, K. (1994) Use of epicar-dial pacing wires after coronary artery bypass surgery. Heart Lung. 23, 487-492.

7. Villain, E., Ouarda, F., Beyler, C., Sidi, D., and Abid, F. (2003) Predictive factors for late complete atrioventricular block after surgical treatment for congenital cardiopathy [in French]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 96, 495-498.

8. Bae, E.J., Lee, J.Y., Noh, C.I., Kim, W.H., and Kim, Y.J. (2003) Sinus node dysfunction after fontan modifications—influence of surgical method. Int J Cardiol. 88, 285-291.

9. Hussain, A., Malik, A., Jalal, A., and Rehman, M. (2002) Abnormalities of conduction after total correction of Fallot's tetralogy: a prospective study. J Pak Med Assoc. 52, 77-82.

10. Bruckheimer, E., Berul, C.I., Kopf, G.S., et al. (2002) Late recovery of surgically-induced atrioventricular block in patients with congenital heart disease. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 6, 191-195.

11. Ghosh, P.K., Singh, H., and Bidwai, P.S. (1989) Complete A-V block and phrenic paralysis complicating surgical closure of ventricular septal defect—a case report. Indian Heart J. 41, 335-337.

12. Hill, S.L., Berul, C.I., Patel, H.T., et al. (2000) Early ECG abnormalities associated with transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects using the Amplatzer septal occluder. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 4, 469-474.

13. Deshmukh, P., Casavant, D.A., Romanyshyn, M., and Anderson, K. (2000) Permanent direct His-bundle pacing: a novel approach to cardiac pacing in patients with normal His-Purkinje activation. Circulation. 101, 869-877.

14. Karpawich, P., Gates, J., and Stokes, K. (1992) Septal His-Purkinje ventricular pacing in canines: a new endocardial electrode approach. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 15, 2011-2015.

15. Karpawich, P.P., Gillette, P.C., Lewis, R.M., Zinner, A., and McNamera, D.G. (1983) Chronic epicardial His bundle recordings in awake nonsedated dogs: a new method. Am Heart J. 105, 16-21.

16. Scheinman, M.M. and Saxon, L.A. (2000) Long-term His-bundle pacing and cardiac function. Circulation. 101, 836-837.

17. Williams, D.O., Sherlag, B.J., Hope, R.R., El-Sherif, N., Lazzara, R., and Samet, P. (1976) Selective versus non-selective His bundle pacing. Cardiovasc Res. 10, 91-100.

18. Karpawich, P.P., Rabah, R., and Haas, J.E. (1999) Altered cardiac histology following apical right ventricular pacing in patients with congenital atrioventricular block. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 22, 1372-1377.

19. de Cock, C.C., Giudici, M.C., and Twisk, J.W. (2003) Comparison of the haemodynamic effects of right ventricular outflow-tract pacing with right ventricular apex pacing: a quantitative review. Europace. 5, 275-278.

20. Cleland, J.G., Daubert, J.C., Erdmann, E., et al. (2001) The CARE-HF study (CArdiac REsynchronisation in Heart Failure study): rationale, design and end-points. Eur J Heart Fail. 3, 481-489.

21. Leclercq, C. and Daubert, J.C. (2003) Cardiac resynchronization therapy is an important advance in the management of congestive heart failure. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 14, S27-S29.

22. Miake, J., Marban, H., and Nuss, B. (2002). Biological pacemaker created by gene transfer. Nature. 419, 132-133.

23. Nattel, S., Khairy, P., Roy, D., et al. (2002) New approaches to atrial fibrillation management: a critical review of a rapidly evolving field. Drugs. 62, 2377-2397.

24. Takahashi, Y., Yoshito, I., Takahashi, A., et al. (2003) AV nodal ablation and pacemaker implantation improves hemodynamic function in atrial fibrillation. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 26, 1212-1217.

25. Bernat, R. and Pfeiffer, D. (2003) Long-term Rand learning curve for radio frequency ablation of accessory pathways. Coll Antropol. 27, 83-91.

26. Gaita, F., Riccardi, R., and Gallotti, R. (2002) Surgical approaches to atrial fibrillation. Card Electrophysiol Rev. 6, 401-405.

27. Betts, T.R., Roberts, P.R., Ho, S.Y., and Morgan, J.M. (2003) High density mapping of shifts in the site of earliest depolarization during sinus rhythm and sinus tachycardia. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 26, 874-882.

28. Boineau, J.B., Schuessler, R.B., Hackel, D.B., et al. (1980) Widespread distribution and rate differentiation of the atrial pacemaker complex. Am J Physiol. 239, H406-H415.

29. Boineau, J.B., Schuessler, R.B., and Mooney, C.R. (1978) Multicentric origin of the atrial depolarization wave: the pacemaker complex. Relation to the dynamics of atrial conduction, P-wave changes and heart rate control. Circulation. 58, 1036-1048.

30. Lee, R.J., Kalman, J.M., Fitzpatrick, A.P., et al. (1995) Radiofre-quency catheter modification of the sinus node for 'inappropriate' sinus tachycardia. Circulation. 92, 2919-2928.

31. Tranum-Jensen, J. (1976) The fine structure of the atrial and atrioventricular (AV) junctional specialized tissues of the rabbit heart, in The Conduction System of the Heart: Structure, Function, and Clinical Implications (Wellens, H.J.J., Lie, K.I., and Janse, M.J., eds.), Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 55-81.

32. Waller, B.F., Gering, L.E., Branyas, N.A., and Slack, J.D. (1993) Anatomy, histology, and pathology of the cardiac conduction system: Part I. Clin Cardiol. 16, 249-252.

33. Garson, A.J., Bricker, J.T., Fisher, D.J., and Neish, S.R. (eds.). (1998) The Science and Practice of Pediatric Cardiology. Volume I. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, pp. 141-143.

34. Becker, A.E. and Anderson, R.H. (1976) The morphology of the human atrioventricular junctional area, in The Conduction System of the Heart: Structure, Function, and Clinical Implications (Wellens, H.J.J., Lie, K.I., and Janse, M.J., eds.), Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 263-286.

35. Aschoff, L. (1910) Referat uber die herzstorungen in ihren bezeihun-gen zu den spezifischen muskelsystem des herzens. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol. 14, 3-35.

36. Monckeberg, J.G. (1910) Beitrage zur normalen und pathologischen anatomie des herzens. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol. 14, 64-71.

37. Zhang, Y., Bharati, S., Mowrey, K.A., Shaowei, Z., Tchou, P.J., and Mazgalev, T.N. (2001) His electrogram alternans reveal dual-wavefront inputs into and longitudinal dissociation within the bundle of His. Circulation. 104, 832-838.

38. Bharati, S., Levine, M., Huang, S.K., et al. (1991) The conduction system of the swine heart. Chest. 100, 207-212.

39. Anderson, R.H., Becker, A.E., Brechenmacher, C., Davies, M.J., and Rossi, L. (1975) The human atrioventricular junctional area. A morphological study of the A-V node and bundle. Eur J Cardiol. 3, 11-25.

40. Frink, R.J. and Merrick, B. (1974) The sheep heart: coronary and conduction system anatomy with special reference to the presence of an os cordis. Anat Rec. 179, 189-200.

41. Becker, A.E. and Anderson, R.H. (2001) Proximal atrioventricular bundle, atrioventricular node, and distal atrioventricular bundle are distinct anatomic structures with unique histological characteristics and innervation—response. Circulation. 103, e30-e31.

42. Bharati, S. (2001) Anatomy of the atrioventricular conduction system—response. Circulation. 103, e63-e64.

43. Magalev, T.N., Ho, S.Y., and Anderson, R.H. (2001) Special Report: Anatomic-electrophysiological correlations concerning the pathways for atrioventricular conduction. Circulation. 103, 2660-2667.

44. Kucera, J.P. and Rudy, Y. (2001) Mechanistic insights into very slow conduction in branching cardiac tissue—a model study. Circulation Res. 89, 799-806.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment