India

India has a prevalence of rabies that is among the highest in the world. In India, rabies is enzootic and widespread in all the states except in the island group of Andaman, Nicobar, and Lakshadweep, which have consistently been free of rabies (Sudarshan et al. 2001). Based on community survey data, approximately 20,000 (or 2 per 100,000 population) human rabies deaths occur in India annually (WHO-APCRI 2004 Wilde et al. 2005). This is about 30 lower than an earlier estimate of 30,000 deaths...

Generation and Preclinical Development ofPalivizumab

Although RSV-IGIV was effective for immunoprophylaxis against severe RSV disease, it needed to be administered intravenously, typically by infusion over several hours, and in relatively large volumes. In addition, RSV-IGIV is isolated from human blood, which is more complicated than the production of antibodies produced recom-binantly. Also, because it is a mixed human IgG product, RSV-IGIV, like other IGIVs, may potentially affect subsequent vaccination schedules of certain vaccines, such as...

Exploring the Native Human Antibody Repertoire to Create Antiviral Therapeutics

Adekar, and J.D. Berry 1 Introduction The Native Human Antibody Repertoire and Viral Disease 156 2 Intravenous Immunoglobulins for Human Viral 3 Hyperimmune Globulins and Native Human Antibodies for Viral Diseases 158 3.1 Hepatitis B 3.3 Varicella Zoster 3.4 Vaccinia 3.5 Rabies 3.6 Respiratory Syncytial 3.7 Cloning Antibody Therapeutics for Viral 4 Features of Different Cloned Human Antibody 5 Hybridoma Methods to Clone Native Human 5.1 Improvements in Fusion Partner Cell...

Motavizumab A Second Generation AntiRSVmAb

Motavizumab (also known as MEDI-524) contains six CDR changes and one framework change in the HC and five CDR changes and one framework change in the LC compared to its parent palivizumab (Fig. 2). The binding affinity of motavizumab (K 34.6 pM) for RSV F protein is about 70-fold greater than palivizumab, and it has a 6-fold faster kon and an 11-fold slower koff than its parent (Wu et al. 2007). Motavizumab is about 20 times more potent than palivizumab in the neutralization of RSV in tissue...

Conclusion

Developing safe and effective antibody therapies for HIV infection is rich in challenge and opportunity. Any single approach to battling HIV bears a high risk of failure however, this risk is spread among the diversity of targets and modalities for antibody therapy. Recent clinical trials have provided initial optimism for antibodies to host receptors and a foundation for further studies. The prospects for HIV-specific antibodies as therapeutic agents are less clear at present. But can we...