Stage Specific Virulence Gene Activation by Host Signals

After the reliability of the reporter system had been confirmed in vitro, we used the reporter strain containing the SAP2P-FLP fusion in various experimental models of candidiasis to analyze the expression of the SAP2 gene at different stages of the infection process. In a model of oesophageal infection in mice in which C. albicans invades into the epithelium but does not disseminate hematogeneously into deep organs, significant SAP2 expression was not detected at any time point, indicating...

Virulence Characteristics Of C Albicans

Candida species are not highly virulent microorganisms, instead, they are ubiquitous human commensals, primarily residing in the gastrointestinal tract without causing any harm. Especially C. albicans readily colonizes host epithelia and is probably harboured by most individuals at some stage in their lives. As an essentially opportunistic pathogen C. albicans needs an immunocompromised host to do more than just colonize the epithelial surface. In hosts with defects in cell-mediated immunity it...

Gene Structure Of Uropathogens

Studies on the genome structure of uropathogens were performed especially with uropathogenic E. coli3. It is of interest that the complete genome sequence of the non-pathogenic E. coli K-12 isolate was established two years ago on the basis of this sequence. It became obvious that pathogenic E. coli, including uropathogenic organisms, contain additional pieces of DNA, which can be part of plasmids, bacteriophages or may represent particular fragments of the genome, termed pathogenicity...

Uropathogenic Organism

Urinary tract infections can be divided into complicated and noncomplicated infectious diseases. The main pathogen of non-complicated urinary tract infections is Escherichia coli. E. coli is not only detected in urinary tract infections in humans but also plays an important role in UTI of certain animals, especially dogs. It is interesting to note that also intestinal pathogens ofporcine origin exhibit features of uropathogenicE. coli1 Over the last few years several non-E. coli bacteria were...

Cytokine Responses And Disease In The Human Urinary Tract

5.1 Influence of P Fimbrial Expression on the Mucosal Cytokine Response Biopsies from the human urinary tract mucosa showed that the prerequisites for IL-8 and IL-8 receptor responses are in place at this site. Immuno-histochemical staining of tissue biopsies with specific antibodies showed that the epithelium contains IL-8 and that the kidney and bladder epithelial cells express the CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors. The response to UPEC was examined by injection of bacteria into the urinary tract of...

ELISA Test with Immunodominant Proteins

As indicated in Fig 4, serum from septic patient strongly reacted with the antigens IsaA, IsaB, Hpr and CspB. No signal was detected against CspC. These data confirm our finding, that the staphylococcal proteins IsaA, IsaB, Hrp and an epitope of CspB act as strong antigens in episodes of human sepsis. The presence of native circulating antibodies throughout individuals in a normal population does not provide necessarily a strong protection from infection, since patients at the onset of sepsis...