Urinary tract infections can be divided into complicated and noncomplicated infectious diseases. The main pathogen of non-complicated urinary tract infections is Escherichia coli. E. coli is not only detected in urinary tract infections in humans but also plays an important role in UTI of certain animals, especially dogs. It is interesting to note that also intestinal pathogens ofporcine origin exhibit features of uropathogenicE. coli1
Over the last few years several non-E. coli bacteria were identified to be uropathogenic. Those bacteria were often found in patients suffering from complicated urinary tract infections, including patients with either catheters or suffering from stone formation or in immunocompromized patients. Thus, multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as certain Proteus species are important ofnon-E. coli uropathogens. One has to take in mind that especially the newly established species Proteus penneri seems to be a newly emerging uropathogen2. In addition, grampositive bacteria also play an increasing role as nosocomial pathogens in UTI. Thus, the biofilm forming S. aureus and S. epidermidis species are of particular importance. Moreover, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum represent important uropathogens. Anaerobic bacteria play an important role especially during prostatitis. Fungi (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata) also represent an emerging group of uropathogens, especially in patients following organ transplantation and chemotherapy.
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