Growing Mushrooms at Home

Mushroom Growing 4 You

This ebook from Jake White, Certified Mushroom Grower, teaches you how to grow your own mushrooms in your backyard! Since you were a kid, you have probably been told to never eat wild mushrooms But what if you had a way to grow your own wonderful-tasting mushrooms? Wouldn't that taste so much better than bland, grocery store mushrooms? Food that you grow in your own backyard tastes so much better than food from the store. Mushrooms from the store can actually be very dangerous They are as absorbent as sponges. When farmers spray pesticides all over them, they absorb every little drop. Eating store-bought mushrooms is like buying a box full of poison. Jake White can teach you how to easily grow all of the mushrooms that you want, of any kind! Learn how to grow amazing tasting mushrooms that do not have any of the bad drugs on them that store bought ones will! Read more here...

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World Production Of Mushrooms

The rapid rate of development of mushroom production technology from a primitive cave culture in France to a hightech industry during the last three centuries is a success story which has kept pace with the ever-increasing demand for this commodity and there is every reason to be optimistic about its further growth in the years to come (Rai and Verma 1997). From a meager 2 million tonnes in 1986, the world mushroom production has registered a 3-fold increase in a decade and was about six million tonnes in 1997, and five mushrooms, namely A. bisporus, Pleurotus spp., V. volvacea, L. edodes and Auricularia spp., the so-called leaders, accounted for 82 per cent of the total mushroom production (Table 1). It is clear that the button mushroom (A. bisporus) is still the leader contributing 31.8 to the total mushroom production but its share that was 56.2 in 1986 has decreased over the years. China is the biggest producer of Lentinula, Pleurotus, Auricularia, Volvariella, Flammulina, and...

Production Technology Of Edible Fungi

Production of edible fungi or mushrooms involves many steps, mainly the following (a) Raising and maintenance of mushroom culture, (b) Seed or spawn preparation, (c) Substrate preparation, (d) Growing or cropping, and (e) Postharvest handling While step (a) and (b) are more or less common and similar for most of the mushrooms, it is the substrate preparation, crop raising, and post harvest technology which vary with the type of mushroom. In this article after brief treatment of the step (a) and (b), the cultivation technology of the so-called five leaders mentioned earlier will be briefly described and reviewed. The successive steps of production of mushrooms are depicted in Figure 1.

Button Mushroom Agaricus Bisporus

Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing., popularly known as the white button mushroom, has the widest acceptability and still accounts for more than 30 of total production of all mushrooms. Limited quantities of A. bitorquis, a high temperature species, are also produced in some countries. Its cultivation technology has developed over the years from a primitive cave culture in France in the 16th century to a hightech industry in America and Europe now. Still in many parts of the world, especially in developing Asian and African countries, sizeable quantities are being produced in low-cost structures like huts under the seasonal conditions. In some parts of the Europe, seasonal growing is done with arrangement for heating during the winters. Like any such venture, the production systems differ in the infrastructure, level of technology, automation, and mechanization but the basic principles and processes remain the same. The production technology of the white button mushroom (A. bisporus) has...

Edible Fungi And Recycling Of The Wastesresidues

Mushrooms are highly perishable and have short shelf life ranging from few hours to days depending upon the species and the storage environment. Weight loss, blackening, veil-opening, and microbial spoilage are the common undesirable postharvest changes besides many physiological and biochemical changes (Bano et al. 1997 Rai and Saxena 1989a Saxena and Rai 1989). Mushrooms require utmost postharvest care like proper handling, packaging, precooling, cool-chain transport, and storage till consumed. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), controlled atmosphere packaging (CAP), and modified humidity packaging (MHP) of the button mushroom have been described by Anantheshwaran and Ghosh (1997). Individual Quick Frozen (IQF) mushrooms are gaining popularity with other frozen vegetables in the super markets. Postharvest technology of mushrooms has been dealt in detail by many authors (Bano et al. 1997 Lal Kaushal and Sharma 1995 Saxena and Rai 1989). Mushrooms are delicate, contain 90 water,...

Pleurotus spp Oyster Mushrooms

Mushroom Histology

Unlike most of the cultivated mushrooms, which represent one species, a group of species of the genus Pleurotus are commercially cultivated and referred commonly as oyster mushrooms. Pleurotus ostreatus (Jack. ex.Fr.) Kummer, is best known species among oyster mushrooms and the specific epithet oyster obviously refers to its Oyster-shell like appearance of the fruitbodies. Pleurotus spp. are most versatile of all the mushrooms, representing about fifteen species capable of growing over a wide range of temperature (5 C to 30 C) and on almost all the lignocellulosic wastes P. sajor-caju, P. florida, P. ostreatus, and P. flabellatus are most popular commercial species. It is a primary rot fungi and can degrade moistened substrates directly and does not require precomposted substrates like secondary rot fungus, e.g., A. bisporus. Ease with which oyster mushrooms can be grown has manifested itself in the production statistics where the production of oyster mushroom registered 442 increase...

Auricularia spp Wood Ear Mushroom

The species of Auricularia, commonly known as wood ear mushroom, are morphologically and, above all, texturally quite distinct from other mushrooms. With typical ear like morphology with cartilaginous texture and gelatinous surface, these are liked as well as disliked at the same time by different people. This mushroom is very popular in China and Southeast Asia but does not seem to attract western consumers. It has been reported to possess many medicinal attributes treatment of piles, sore throat, anemia and hypocholesterolemic effect (Quimio et al. 1990 Royse 1997). Out of about 10 recognized species of Auricularia two main commercially cultivated species are A. auricula and A. polytricha, the former is thin and light coloured while the latter is the thicker, longer, hairy, and darker. A. fuscosuccinea is also produced on a limited scale. Thailand and Taiwan are the main producers of this mushroom. Like shiitake (L. edodes), Auricularia are also produced on natural logs as well as...

Nutritional And Medicinal Values Of Mushrooms

It is primarily the flavor and texture for which the mushrooms are devoured by the mankind, and scientific appreciation of their nutritional and medicinal attributes is a recent phenomenon. Mushrooms have, from nutrition point of view, a distinct place in human diet which otherwise consists of items either of plant or animal origin. Mushrooms are perhaps the only fungi deliberately and knowingly consumed by human beings, and they complement and supplement the human diet with various ingredients not encountered or deficient in food substances of plant and animal origin. Besides the attributes understood in the terms of conventional nutrition, unique chemical composition of mushrooms makes Nutritional value of mushrooms has been reviewed by many workers (Chang and Miles 1989 Crisan and Sands 1978 Rai 1995). Only salient features will be briefly but critically described here. It is a fact that there are wide variations in the nutritional values reported for the same species by different...

Specialty Mushrooms

Specialty mushrooms is a term given to a group of cultivated mushrooms which are less common in a particular area or country, but the term has been used to practically encompass all mushrooms other than the common button mushroom (A. bisporus). In the United States, the term specialty mushrooms is used to cover all mushrooms other than the button mushroom, which accounted for 90 of total production of 346188 MT there in 1993-1994 (Sharma 1997). In Japan, however, the situation is reverse to that in the United States where 90 of total production was of the so-called specialty mushrooms and button mushroom contributed only 10 . Therefore, from the Japanese perspective button mushroom could be termed as specialty mushroom. Be that as it may, the term specialty mushrooms is now well established by usage to represent all mushrooms other than the button mushroom. Production and consumption of the specialty mushrooms are very popular in the East Asian countries namely China, Japan, Korea,...

Mushroom Production

Several of the white rot fungi that can utilize lignocellulose are edible mushrooms. They have been successfully cultivated at a commercial level worldwide using ligno-cellulosic wastes as the main substrate (Wood and Smith 1987). Agaricus bisporus, known as the button mushroom, L. edodes known as Shiitake, and P. ostreatus, known as the oyster mushroom are just three examples of this agricultural-biotechnological crop. Bioconversion of ligno-cellulosic residues through mushroom cultivation also offers the potential for converting these residues into protein-rich palatable food, reducing the environmental impact of the wastes.

Significance to humans

Local superstitions about rails include those held by some African peoples to explain the strange calls heard from forest or marsh. The song of the buff-spotted flufftail, one of the most evocative sounds of the African rainforest, is sometimes believed to be the wail of a banshee, or the sound of a chameleon mourning for its mother, whom it killed in an argument over some mushrooms. The extinct Kosrae crake

Acetylcholine as a Neurotransmitter

The stimulatory effect of ACh on skeletal muscle cells is produced by the binding of ACh to nico-tinic ACh receptors, so named because they can also be activated by nicotine. Effects of ACh on other cells occur when ACh binds to muscarinic ACh receptors these effects can also be produced by muscarine (a drug derived from certain poisonous mushrooms).

Differential Diagnosis

The symptoms associated with nerve agent intoxication may be the result of other organophosphate compounds such as the carbamate insecticides. Cholinergic crisis can be the result of a variety of medication overdoses, including neostigmine, physostigmine, pyridostigmine bromide, PCP, phenothiazines, clonidine, and muscarinic mushrooms. In addition, CNS symptoms may be mimicked by stroke, seizure, or other neuromuscular disorders. Such clinical findings as rhinorrhea, lacrimation, and bronchospasm may also be present with exposure to riot-control agents.

Fungal Biotechology In Food Production

No matter how anecdotal the evidence, even the ancient societies recognized the use of fungal technology, in relationship with their agriculture and food. Knowledge of fungal diversity and distinguishing beneficial fungi for the biotransformation of food ingredients, helped to sustain and extend our food source. In spite of the powerful toxic secondary metabolites of many fungi, humanity survived these fungi and through innovative use of the beneficial micro and macro fungi found particular culinary and other uses of the mushrooms (see this volume, chapter by Rai). Aspergillus nidulans niger oryzae Mucor hiemalus miehei pusillus Penicillium album camemberti caseicolum roquefortii Rhizopus arrhizus cohnii delemar niveus oligosporus oryzae Edible mushrooms Agaricus bisporus Agaricus campus Lentinus edodes Pholiota nameke Pleurotus ostreatus Volvariella volvacea

Fermentation Technology and Downstream Processing

Yeasts and filamentous fungi were traditionally employed in the production of alcoholic beverages and fermented foods over centuries (Hui and Khachatourians 1995 Rajak 2000). Yeasts (mainly Saccharomyces) have been used worldwide for brewing and baking for thousands of years. Likewise, filamentous fungi have been traditionally used for preparing mold-ripened cheeses (mainly Penicillium spp.) in Europe and soybean-based fermented foods (mainly Aspergillus spp.) in the Orient. On the other hand, edible mushrooms (such as Agaricus) have been used worldwide for direct consumption since times immemorial (Hudler 1998 Pointing and Hyde 2001 Rajak 2000 Singh and Aneja 1999). With passing time, these fermentation techniques were scaled up and made more efficient with respect to engineering theories and practices. Main outcomes of the evolution of food processing and production activities, have been the introduction of interdisciplinary natural and engineering concepts, for example, better...

Solidstate bioprocessing

Fermented foods have been consumed by humans all over the world for centuries. Most fermentation processes are conducted with liquid nutrient broths. Well known examples in the food industry are the production of yogurt, beer, wine, lactic acid, and many food flavors (213). However, partial fermentation and aerobic microbial growth based bioprocessing has also been used for processing food and food wastes. Here, instead of a nutrient broth, moist solid nutrients with minimal water are used as a substrate for microbial growth. This process is referred to as solid-state bioprocessing. Microbial fermentation and aerobic microbial growth on foods in solid state, for preservation of food and flavor enhancement, has been done for centuries and some of the common examples for these processes include manufacture of cheese and bread (214). Other wellknown examples are the production of microbe laced cheeses such as Roquefort, and the production of fermented sausages. In Asia, solidstate...

Woodland Ecosystems As A Global Resource

The biological diversity contained within woodland ecosystems may be exploited for practical and aesthetic gain. Traditional methods of exploitation have involved collection or cultivation of fungi for food, e.g., truffle fungi, Lentinula edodes (Shii-take), and Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) as well as many other edible woodland fungi. Wood colonized by certain fungal species may be employed to generate valuable timber products. For example, Brown oak veneer timber (pourriture rouge dur) is produced by Fistulina hepatica colonizing heartwood, Chlorosplenium aeruginascens is used in the commercial production of Tunbridge ware, and wood containing interaction zone lines is turned to produce decorative artifacts. Novel methods of exploitation may involve the application of fungal decay systems to convert a range of renewable lignocellulosics into protein, fermentable sugars, and other products, or to bioremediate certain recalcitrant pollutants. Appreciation and understanding of...

Fungal Diversity Environmental Change And Conservation

Despite these limitations evidence accrues, particularly from Europe and more recently the United States, suggesting that fungal biodiversity is in decline. The likely causes of decline are due to habitat loss and or pollution. Harvesting of wild edible mushrooms is believed to have little detrimental effect on fungi, except where collection has involved damaging or exhausting the mycelium, or trampling or raking the soil (Arnolds 1995). Nevertheless, the environmental impact of large-scale commercial harvesting remains a contentious issue. Fungal habitat may be lost, with implicit reduction of fungal species diversity, either by deforestation, or because of commercial forestry management practices, such as the conversion to less-mixed or monoculture plantations, stand felling of a particular age, and the removal of course woody debris (Fridman and Walheim 2000 H0iland and Bendiksen 1996 Lindblad 1998 Norden and Paltto 2001 Ohlson et al. 1997 Straatsma et al. 2001). Red-List...

Fungal and Plant Species Richness

Unlike AM fungi, the formation of EM involves a greater diversity of fungal species ( 5400 species), exhibiting varying degrees of host specificity (Molina et al. 1992). For example, the EM fungal genera, Hydnangium, is found only on Eucalyptus and Suillis and Rhizopogon are restricted to Pinaceae, while Amanita and Laccaria associate with most EM hosts (Molina et al. 1992). Further, EM fungal diversity can be high in areas where plant community diversity is low. Early studies by Trappe (1977) estimated 2000 species of EM associated with Douglas Fir alone. In the Jarrah forest of southwestern Australia dominated by Eucalyptus marginate and E. calophylla, 90 species of EM fungi were found (Hilton et al. 1989). Over 50 species of EM fungi were identified in a Quercus agrifolia stand near Temecula in southern California. These included truffle fungi in the genera Hydnotryposis, Hydnotrya, and Tuber, as well as epigeous mushrooms such as Amanita, Boletus, Cortinarius, Laccaria, and...

Heat treatment blanching and canning

Heat treatments are responsible for irreversible denaturation of cellular tissue in fruits or vegetables causing softening and juice loss. Vacuum infusion technology was consequently used before heat treatment such as blanching, pasteurising and canning with an aim of limiting thermal damages in the product. It is of particular interest to note the treatment of button mushrooms (McArdle et al., 1974 Gormley and Walshe, 1986 Demeaux et al., 1988), strawberries (Main et al., 1986), apricots (French et al., 1989) and turnips (Moreira et al., 1994). McArdle et al. (1974) showed that vacuum impregnation of mushroom with only water before blanching and canning improved the weight yield in the final product. The water retention resulting in this case could be also improved thanks to the preliminary infusion of a hydrocolloid like xanthan gum (Gormley and Walshe, 1986). Xanthan impregnation tended to decrease the shrinkage of mushroom during the blanching canning cycle and thus to reduce the...

Maintenance and Preservation of Fungal Cultures

Pure culture of edible fungi is prepared either by multispore culture or tissue culture the former is suitable for obtaining fruiting cultures of A. bisporus but is not a suitable technique for heterothallic species. Tissue cultures derived from the stipe or pileus of the mushrooms, both homothallic as well as heterothallic species, can be used to raise fruiting cultures. For multispore culture, a healthy and mature fruitbody of the mushroom is first washed in sterile water, surface-sterilized with alcohol, and is placed on a spiral wire loop kept in sterile petriplate covered with a beaker. Mushroom sheds spores on petriplates from which a loopful of spores is transferred on suitable growth medium, generally malt extract agar in case of A. bisporus. Spores after germination give rise to multispore culture. In case of tissue culture, a piece from a suitable place of fruitbody is cut and after surface-sterilization, the piece is transferred onto sterile growth medium slants. Different...


Most springtails feed on funguses, organisms that include mushrooms, mold, and yeast. All funguses depend other plants or animals for their food. They also feed on bacteria, tiny living things that are made up of only one cell. Species living in trees or those living in the soil also eat plant material and algae (AL-jee), living things that resemble plants but do not have roots, stems, or leaves. A few species are carnivorous (KAR-nih-vuh-rus), or meat eating, feeding on tiny worms and other springtails and their eggs.

Barbary macaque

Feed predominantly on the ground but sometimes in trees, eating acorns in addition to cones, needles and bark of cedar trees. Also eat mushrooms and bulbs dug from the ground, along with various invertebrates (particularly insects and scorpions) and occasionally other animal prey.

Crabeating fox

48 of the diet is vertebrates with 31 land crabs. During the wet season 54 of the diet is invertebrates, mainly beetles and grasshoppers, and small mammals make up 20 . Fruit and carrion form the remainder of the food. Frogs, lizards, mushrooms, and snails have also been found in stomachs.

Nonsulphite dipping

Enzymic discoloration of fresh prepared produce is one of the major causes of quality loss and spoilage during post-harvest handling, processing and storage (Sapers, 1993 Laurila et al., 1998). PPO (EC is the enzyme primarily responsible for the discoloration of fresh prepared potatoes, apples, carrots, parsnips, swede, pears, mushrooms, bananas, peaches, grapes and lettuce, and this discoloration is often the shelf-life limiting quality attribute for these items (Duncan, 1999). PPO activity also results in detrimental changes to the texture and flavour of fresh prepared produce and losses of nutritional quality (Whitaker, 1996). Given the deleterious effects of PPO activity upon the sensory and nutritional quality of fresh prepared produce, it is not surprising that considerable research has been devoted to inhibit the activity of this enzyme (Duncan, 1999). Sulphites have long been used as food additives to inhibit enzymic and non-enzymic discolorations, to control the...

Filamentous Fungi

The development of basidiomycetous fungi (mushrooms) in submerged culture is interesting because of their probable suitability as cheap substitutes for mushroom fruiting bodies in certain kinds of food. Falanghe (1962) investigated the suitability of stillage for growing mushroom mycelia as a source of protein and fat. Among ten strains cultivated in submerged conditions, Agaricus campestris and Boletus indecisus were chosen as the two most suitable. A. campestris was more effective in producing mycelial protein content. B. indecisus, however, exhibited a greater ability for mycelial production. The dried mycelia had a pleasant slight flavor and they seemed to have adequate characteristics for improving foods their growth in pellet form enabled easy separation from the medium. In apple distillery slop, Phanerochaete chrysosporium grew successfully it reduced the amount of fiber and improved protein content in the biomass (Friedrich et al. 1986). Coriolus versicolor and P....

Spawn Production

The term spawn is used for vegetative growth of mushroom mycelium on a suitable medium, to be used as inoculum or seed for the substrate in mushroom cultivation. Right kind and quality of spawn is very important in the cultivation of edible fungi. The technique of spawn preparation witnessed many developments before Sinden developed the currently used grain spawn on hard winter rye grain after addition of calcium salts and patented the process in 1932 and 1937. However, wheat grain is now most commonly used as the basal medium for spawn production. Kumar (1995) has described other substrates used for spawn. Table 3 Essential amino acids ( crude protein) in edible mushrooms Table 3 Essential amino acids ( crude protein) in edible mushrooms

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