Effective Treatment for Hair Loss

Peruvian Hair Loss Treatment

Peruvian Hair loss treatment is a natural product, best for hair loss restoration. The hair product works well because its composition is free from chemical impurities. Hair loss is a life-changing occurrence in the lives of many people. As much as people may make fun of a bald head individual, but they fail to understand that this individual is very frustrated as it is already. Hair loss impacts on the overall personality build of an individual. For some, it is what makes them feel less pretty while others have lost their self-esteem to hair loss. Even so, Peruvian Hair loss is not only a powerful anti-hair loss formula, but it also strengthens the hair. Biologically, the leading cause of hair loss is high production of hormone DHT which weakens the hair, and it begins falling off. The hormone DHT is a version of testosterone, but it is more active. The Peruvian Hair loss treatment, however, offers smooth, soothing sensation on the human scalp, thereby increasing the blood flow. Moreover, the hair formulae prevent the conversion of testosterone into DHT. Peruvian hair loss treatment is not only useful in restoring hairlines, but it also makes the hair bulky and shiny. Peruvian hair loss treatment works by stimulating the growth of the hair, thereby making it long and healthy. Read more...

Peruvian Hair Loss Treatment Summary

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Hair Follicle Fahlihkuhl Mite Demodex folliculorum

Habitat This mite lives in human hair follicles, the small sacs that surround the root of each hair. The mite might be found anywhere on the body but prefers the follicles of the face, the roots of eyelashes, and the oil glands of the forehead, nose, and chin. Diet The hair follicle mite eats human skin cells. Behavior and reproduction Follicle mites are common parasites and spend their entire lives on their human hosts. They live in hair follicles and eyelashes, burrowing head first into the root. They move onto the skin at night at rate of 0.4 inches (1 centimeter) per hour. Females may lay up to twenty-five oval eggs on one hair follicle. Young mites resemble adults. First-stage larvae (LAR-vee), or young Hair follicle mites live in hair follicles and eyelashes, burrowing head first into the root. ( Andrew Syred Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Hair follicle mites and people Mites are basically harmless, and humans who harbor them often show no signs of...

Dihydrotestosterone Metabolism

Dihydrotestosterone is metabolized rapidly in peripheral tissues. Different enzymes can use DHT as a substrate (Fig. 2.3). It can undergo reduction of the 3-ketone group to form either 5a-androstane-3a,17 -diol (also referred to as 3a-androstanediol or 3a-diol) via the enzyme 3a-HSD or 5a-androstane-3 ,17 -diol (3 -an-drostanediol or 3 -diol) via the enzyme 3 -HSD. These reactions are reversible. In vivo, the back-conversion of 3a-diol to DHT is greater than 50 .108 The former metabolite (3a-diol) is considered to have some androgenic activity.109 SRD5A AKR1C -DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE 5a-ANDROSTANE-3a,17B-DIOL Dihydrotestosterone (DHT)

Hormonal Carcinogenesis

A second, and arguably relevant, concept related to human studies of hormonal carcinogen-esis has gradually emerged from studies of the epidemiology of prostate cancer.20 A series of prospective studies of circulating testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) did not show the same consistent relationship of higher serum androgen levels and prostate cancer risk.21 In their meta-analysis, Eaton et al.21 concluded the following

Decline In Systems Redundancy With

Many age changes in living organisms can be explained by cumulative effects of cell loss over time. For example, the very common phenomenon of hair graying with age is caused by depletion of hair follicle melanocytes (Commo et al., 2004). Melanocyte density in human epidermis declines gradually with age at a rate approximately 0.8 per year (Gilchrest et al., 1979). Hair graying is a relatively benign phenomenon, but cell loss can also lead to more serious consequences.

The Mechanism of FAS Regulation by Progestin

In BC, FAS is specifically regulated via the PR since its induction by R5020 was inhibited by RU 486 but not by flutamide. Androgens such as dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were only active at p,uM concentrations. Therefore, in ERa+ and PR+ BC cell lines, progesterone was the major hormone to regulate FAS expression. Recently, other laboratories showed that mitogens such as the growth factors EGF, FGF-1, and HER-2 neu also induce FAS by stimulating PI-3 kinase and MAP kinase pathways leading to induction of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP1) transcription factor . This pathway has been documented in two ERa mammary cell lines MCFlOa transfected with ras (32), and H16 transfected with the HER-2 neu oncogene (33). In MCF7 and T47D BC cell lines, the classical pathway following activation of nuclear PRs by progestins was found to be the predominant or even exclusive regulation. Therefore in-vivo, in ERa and PR-positive BCs, FAS is most likely induced by progestins acting...

Ultrasonic vocalizations in rats

There is only one aspect of ultrasonic vocalizations in which rats and mice appear to be equally well known their dependence on gonadal hormones. Castrated male rats vocalize a lot less than intact males (Geyer et al., 1978) and ovariectomized females vocalize less than females rendered sexually receptive by treatment with estradiol and progesterone (Thomas and Barfield, 1985). Just as is the case with the induction of lordosis, sequential treatment with estradiol and progesterone is the most efficient procedure for stimulating vocalizations in ovariectomized females (Matochik et al., 1992a). Further support for a role of ovarian hormones is provided by a study of variations in vocalizations in response to a male during the estrus cycle. The amount of vocalizations emitted during proestrus - early estrus is far above that observed at any other stage of the cycle (Matochik et al., 1992b). There is, then, solid evidence for a role of ovarian hormones in the control of female rat...

Nuclear Receptor Ligands

Consideration of the diverse stereospecific structures of the known ligands for NRs reflects the diversity and size of the superfamily (Figs. 3.8-3.10). As discussed previously, the ligand-binding function of NRs evidently evolved in very small steps, yielding a large family of proteins capable of discriminating minor differences in chemical structures. The majority of known ligands are lipophilic, polycyclic planar compounds containing a variable number of ring structures, side chains, and alcohol, car-boxylate, or ketone functional groups. Many of the receptors (including the class I receptors, VDR, LXR, EcR, FXR, PXR, and CAR) recognize unique metabolites of the mevalonate pathway that share a three- or four-ring cholesterol-like structure. The natural sterol moieties are recognized with high affinity by the classical steroid receptors, with dissociation constants in the low to high nanomolar range, making these receptors exquisitely sensitive to changes in steroid levels. The...

The role of testosterone metabolites in nonhuman males

In the 1960s, it was discovered that a testosterone metabolite, 5a-dihydrotesto-sterone, was formed from circulating testosterone in peripheral target organs like the prostate or seminal vesicle. The enzyme responsible for the transformation of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone, 5a-reductase, was found to be present in target tissues. Dihydrotestosterone has a higher affinity for the testosterone receptor than testosterone itself and it was soon suggested that testosterone was a pre-hormone and that it needed to be transformed into dihydrotestosterone before having any physiological effect (Wilson and Gloyna, 1970). It was quite logical to suppose that this would also be the case for the actions of testosterone within the central nervous system, particularly since 5a-reductase had been shown to be present in the brain (Jaffe, 1969). To the surprise of many scientists, this was not the case. Dihydrotestosterone turned out to be quite inefficient for the restoration of copulatory...

The role of aromatization in men

Data concerning the role of aromatization in the human male are not abundant, but a few studies have determined the consequences of inhibition of aromatase. In one of them, six young (20-26 years) university students were treated with testo-lactone for 6 weeks in a dose that reduced plasma estradiol concentrations to less than 50 of pretreatment concentration. No effect on any indicator of sexual activity, like number of sexual acts, frequency of sexual thoughts or frequency of sexual excitement, was found (Gooren, 1985). These data suggest that aromatization is not a requisite for androgen actions on human male sexual behavior. This idea receives support from results obtained in other groups included in the same study. One group of 12 men was given the estrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen for 12 weeks. Sexual activity was not affected. Another group of six 'agonadal' (probably meaning castrated) men, that were maintained on a treatment with testosterone undecanoate, a long-acting...

Significance to humans

Insectivores are secretive, nocturnal, shy, and for most humans fall into neither the cute and cuddly nor the big and scary attention-generating categories. A few individual insectivore species, however, have been singled out for attention. The greater hedgehog tenrec (Setifer setosus), for example, is probably the most recognizable of the insectivores. This creature is easy to keep as a pet and has a large enthusiastic following. Hedgehogs are also important in research on diseases such as foot and mouth disease, yellow fever, and influenza. Old home remedies sometimes called for hedgehog blood, entrails or ashes. Mixed with pitch or resin, the burned hindquarters supposedly helped cure baldness. The hedgehog was used to predict the weather and if buried under a building was thought to bring good luck. The Romans kept hedgehogs as pets during the fourth century B.C. and they remain domesticated to this day. Other uses over the years for this spiny insectivore include consumption of...

Conclusion concerning the role of aromatization

The ensemble of the data presented in the preceding paragraphs shows that the activation of estrogen receptors is not indispensable for the activation of male cop-ulatory behavior and that dihydrotestosterone, and consequently the exclusive stimulation of androgen receptors, in fact may be sufficient for the complete restoration of these behaviors in castrated males of many species. In the case of the rat, it appears that complete restoration of sexual behavior in castrated males, as well as the initial activation of the behavior at puberty and its maintenance throughout adult life, requires simultaneous stimulation of androgen and estrogen receptors within the central nervous system (Vagell and McGinnis, 1997). In men, the majority of existing data suggest that stimulation of the androgen receptor alone is sufficient for the activation and maintenance of sexual behaviors.

Studies on knockout mice

This idea is further strengthened by a study employing mice in which the androgen receptor gene was artificially altered. The appearance of these male mice was that of a female, exactly as is the case in the natural testicular feminization syndrome. Furthermore, they displayed no sexual behavior at all, neither when intact nor when castrated and treated with dihydrotestosterone. All the wild type littermates mounted, intromitted and ejaculated when intact and displayed enhanced copulatory behavior after treatment with dihydrotestosterone (Sato et al., 2004). The androgen receptor knockout mice were generated from embryos of the CD-1 strain and floxed C57 BL6 mice were backcrossed with CMV-Cre transgenic mice, according to the methods description. This elegant procedure is certainly comprehensible to some molecular biologists, but I must admit that the only thing clear to me is that the 129 strain was not involved. I mention this only because strain may be, as we already know, of...

Conclusions concerning the hormonal control of male sexual behavior

Since the main testicular hormone, testosterone, may be reduced to dihydrotestos-terone and aromatized to estradiol, and since both 5a-reductase and aromatase are present at brain sites important for sexual behaviors, it is quite logical to ask whether these products of testosterone metabolism rather than testosterone itself are responsible for the behavioral actions of testicular hormones. As we have seen, there is no unequivocal answer to this question. Among rodents, it appears that both estradiol and consequently estrogen receptors, and dihydrotestosterone, and consequently the androgen receptor, are of importance for normal masculine sexual behavior in some species. However, sexual behaviors can be induced by the exclusive stimulation of androgen receptors in other rodent species. In non-rodent species, the confusion is still more pronounced. Some, like rabbits and rhesus monkeys, do not respond at all to estrogen treatment but respond well to treatment with dihydrotestosterone,...

Control of Androgen Action and Medicinal Applications

In the early 1960s, we found that As can rapidly enhance RNA synthesis in target organs, such as the ventral prostate of rats, suggesting that As act by modulating gene expression in target cell nuclei (2-4). Subsequently, we (5, 6) and Bruchovsky and Wilson (7) showed that, in many target organs, testosterone, the major A produced by testis and circulating in blood, is converted by 5a-reductase to 5a-dihydrotestosterone (5a-DHT). 5a-DHT is the active A that binds to a specific nuclear androgen receptor (AR) (8-12). The 5a-DHT-AR complex, apparently in conjunction with other chromosomal proteins (13), then regulates specific transcription of genes and production of specific proteins that modulate cellular activities and organ functions. Cloning and sequence determination of the genes for AR (10, 11) and 5a-reductase (14) have shown that mutations of these genes are responsible for A-insensitivity syndromes, including pseudo-hermaphroditism. are now being utilized as therapies for...

The role of ovarian and adrenal hormones in female primates

To make the arguments exposed in the preceding paragraph clearer, I will give an example from my own rat data. Some time ago we were interested in determining whether a new compound could activate male rat copulatory behavior. During these studies we employed dihydrotestosterone as a kind of control. We ran several experiments, some with rats with very little sexual experience, some with rats with substantial sexual experience. For purposes of illustration, I pick four rats treated with dihydrotestosterone from a group of 12 animals with little experience and another four from a group of 12 animals with more sexual experience. I also make a random sample of four controls (untreated, castrated males) of the 12 used in each experiment. As can be seen in Figure 5.1a, it turns out that the experienced animals are far superior to the controls while the inexperienced animals are not. The conclusion would be that the effects of dihydrotestosterone on male rat sexual behavior depend on...

Hormones and sexual behavior in women

It seems convenient to begin the discussion of the human female with a summary of the hormonal changes occurring after puberty. We all know that women have a menstrual cycle, and any introductory physiology and even psychology textbook will provide us with an excellent description of the hormonal changes during the cycle. Suffice to mention that estradiol, the main follicular estrogen, is mainly secreted during the first half of the cycle with a peak around ovulation. Progesterone, produced by the corpus luteum, is elevated from shortly after ovulation until the beginning of menstruation, when it rapidly drops. This is the picture of the menstrual cycle generally divulged in textbooks and on Internet sites. However, in addition to producing estrogens and progesterone, the ovaries also produce androgens. In fact, human female blood contains several androgens, like dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. The...

Mucocutaneous Manifestations

The mucocutaneous manifestations of CS are the most common, yet the most difficult to recognize, with an estimated penetrance of 99 by the end of the third decade (17). The characteristic skin lesions of CS are trichilemmomas and papillomatous papules (25). Trichilemmomas are hamartomas of the infundibulum of the hair follicle and are characteristically found at or near the hairline while papillomatous papules are condyloma-like lesions occurring frequently on the face, hands, feet, or oral mucosa. It is not uncommon to see papillomatous papules proliferate at pressure points particularly on the palmar and plantar surfaces. Additional cutaneous manifestations include acral keratoses, small punctate lesions commonly seen on the palmar surface of the hands, which are often associated with a central depression or pit. Lipomas are a feature, but are seen more commonly in BRRS (14). Patients appear predisposed to excessive scarring, even cheloid formation, at the site of traumatic or...

Mutations of the Androgen Receptor in PCA

In contrast to AR mutations detected in patients with androgen insensitivity syndromes, several structural changes of the AR in PCA lead to gain of function. This was first observed in LNCaP cells, whose mutant AR is efficiently activated by adrenal androgens, anti-androgens, and estrogenic or progestagenic steroids (17). In LNCaP cells, threonine at position 877 is mutated to alanine. The mutation changes the stereochemistry of the binding pocket of the AR. The first two mutations discovered in PCA patients have very similar functional consequences in each of these two ARs, amino acid valine (at positions 715 and 730, respectively) is substituted by methionine (18,19). These ARs are increasingly activated by adrenal androgens, products of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) metabolism, and hydroxyflutamide. Higher AR activity was induced by these hormones, although there were no major changes in AR binding affinity. A more efficient AR activation by adrenal androgens and DHT metabolism may...

Side Effects Of Radiotherapy Acute Reactions

Desquamation and some degree of erythema, which are managed with local ointments. Temporary alopecia within the radiation field is a common sequela. Fatigue may be observed with radiation therapy, but is often a function of several other variables such as age, performance status, underlying medical status, and extent of brain being irradiated.

Future Lines of Research

Future research using the bat as a model for the study of aging may reveal mechanisms that confer resistance to expected senescent processes observed in other long-lived mammals. Elucidation of the physiological mechanisms that give rise to the exceptional longevity observed in bats may provide insight into the development of novel treatments and therapies of degenerative diseases associated with senescence in humans. Chien and Karsenty (2005) describe the typical manifestation of the aging phenotype in long-lived mammals as development of osteoporosis, reduction in body weight, lean-reduced fat tissue, loss of hair or alopecia, cardiomyopathy, early loss of fertility in females, anemia with extramedullary hematopoiesis, reduction in physical activity, and lack of obvious cause of death. Following is a brief review of potentially heuristic lines of research using the bat as a model for the study of aging.

Reproductive Biology

Females may lay up to 20-25 oval eggs on one hair follicle. Larvae (protonymph) and nymphs (deutonymph), with physical features similar to adults, are swept by sebaceous flow to mouth of follicle. First stage larvae emerge without legs. Larvae in later stages have six legs, as opposed to eight for adults. As immature mites grow, they become tightly packed. When mature, mites leave follicle, mate, and find new follicle in which to lay eggs. Entire life cycle spent on host 14-18 days.

Studies in nonhuman mammals

Another study (Drewett and Spiteri, 1979), again using a straight runway, reports results entirely different from the Bolles et al. (1968) experiment. Castrated male Wistar rats, either untreated or given dihydrotestosterone alone or dihydrotestosterone + estradiol provided different kinds of reinforcement. As we learned in Chapter 4, Wistar males do not copulate after treatment with dihydrotestosterone, but the hormone has most of the peripheral actions that testosterone has. Thus, these males most probably smelled and looked like intact rats. When estradiol is added to dihydrotestosterone, the males not only look and smell like intact rats, but they also copulate like intact rats. The females running to a castrated male ran faster after training. This replicates the finding that a sexually inactive male is a reinforcer. The females running to the dihydrotestosterone treated males ran faster than those running to the castrated male. This suggests that a male looking and smelling like...

Behavior And Reproduction

Snakeflies are active during the day and spend most of their time cleaning themselves. They use their front legs like a comb over their head and pull their antennae through their leg segments. The legs are then pulled to their mouthparts for cleaning. As adults, snakeflies are weak flyers and are not able to move very far from where they grew up as larvae. Like most animals that hunt other animals for food, adult snakeflies live alone and come together only to mate. Courtship in some species involves movements of the antennae, wings, and abdomens. The male places sperm directly into the reproductive organs of the female. Mating lasts up to three hours.

Mycosis Fungoides And Sezary Syndrome

SS is generally regarded as the leukemic form of epidermotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (MF). Clinically, SS is characterized by erythroderma, palmoplantar keratoderma, partial alopecia, lymphadenopathy, and pruritis. Atypical lymphocytes are seen in the blood and take the form of lymphocytes with grooved, cerebriform nuclei of large (typical Sezary cells,) or small (so-called Lutzner cells) size. Although originally described in 1961 by Tasell and Winkelmann,49 the exact definition of SS is still not uniformly agreed upon. Disagreement revolves around both clinical issues and laboratory issues. Clinically, distinction is made by some authors between classical SS, in which patients develop signs and symptoms over a rapid period of time usually without a prior history of

Radiation Oncology Nurse

Radiation therapy provides an important role in the management of HGG. Nursing care provided by the radiation oncology nurse begins at the initial consult visit and continues into the early post-radiation phase. Patients and families must be educated regarding treatment schedules and expected effects and side effects. Options available to patients include conventional regional radiation, whole brain radiation, stereotactic radiosurgery such as gamma knife or photon beam, brachytherapy, and hyperthermia (31). It is often difficult to assess if symptoms are being caused by the radiation therapy itself, tumor growth, or other concurrent therapies. Acute symptoms occur within the first few weeks to months and are usually self-limiting. These include nausea but rarely vomiting, anorexia, impaired taste, fatigue, increased seizures, increased neurologic deficits, skin changes, hair loss, and impaired wound healing. Some patients whose radiation fields lie near the ear can experience hearing...

Prospective Dose Intensity Trials for Breast Cancer

Mg mL, methotrexate 40 mg mL, 5-fluorouracil 600 mg mL) and low dose (cyclophosphamide 300 mg mL, methotrexate 20 mg mL, 5-fluorouracil 300 mg mL). Response rates were higher for the standard-dose cohort (30 vs 11 , p 0.3), but there was no statistical difference in overall survival (15.6 mo vs 12.8 mo, p 0.12). Although the rates of toxicity (vomiting, alopecia, myelosuppression, and conjunctivitis) were higher in the standard-dose cohort, patients in the standard-dose cohort had an improved quality of life. Based on the increased response rate, trend to improved survival, and overall improvement in quality of life, the authors concluded that the rate of disease palliation was improved with higher dose therapy.

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common disease of aged males. It is associated with low urinary tract syndrome and can result in serious complications including renal failure. The main pathophysiological factors, and consequently, therapeutic targets, are sex hormones and sympathetic activity. Testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol play crucial roles, and their effects are influenced by several genetic factors.

Trichoglyphics Introduction and Embryology

The patterning of hair follicles is called trichoglyphics. The hair shaft directional slope is secondary to the plane of the stretch exerted on the skin when the hair follicles are forming. During the first two months of gestation, the embryo is completely hairless. Then the primary hair, called lanugo, starts to grow. The origin of the hair directional patterning is the original sloping angulation of the hair follicle. The hair follicles start to push downward into the underlying mesenchyme at 10-12 weeks of gestation (Fig. 12.9). On the scalp, the angle of the hair shaft reflects the prior plane of growth of the skin (e.g., the plane of growth present at the time when the follicle was forming). The plane of growth of the scalp skin is usually determined by the growth of the underlying brain. The posterior parietal hair whorl is considered to be the focal point from which the growth stretch is exerted by the dome-like outgrowth of the brain during the time of hair follicle...

Hypothalamic PituitaryThyroid Axis

Hyperthyroidism, i.e., a functional hyperac-tivity of the thyroid gland marked by increased T3 and T4 levels, coincides with hyperme-tabolic activity, weight loss, increased heart rate, increased cold tolerance, tremulousness, fatigue, anxiety, restlessness, irritability, dyspho-ric mood, weakness, poor concentration, and cognitive deficits (Lesser and Flores, 2007). On the contrary, a deficient secretion of thyroid hormones in hypothyroidism is characterized by facial puffiness, dry skin, hair loss, myalgia, cold intolerance, constipation, fatigue, and manifest depression (Joffe, 2007).

Sexual differentiation

Into 5a-dihydrotestosterone, which binds to androgen receptors with a higher affinity than does testosterone. The formation of 5a-dihydrotestosterone from testosterone within reproductive tissues can enhance the process of virulization of the male genitalia. The differential expression of the androgen receptor or of factors regulating the downstream effect of the androgen receptor on gene expression or protein-protein interactions could likewise modulate the degree of masculinization. A familial reductase deficiency common in the Dominican Republic (Imperato-McGinley, 1979) results in the severely limited levels of 5a-dihydrotestosterone and in incomplete masculinization. It is reasonable to assume that the process of masculinization admits to degrees, even at the more rudimentary level of the reproductive tract and genitalia. Such variation is evident in cases of testicular feminization (or androgen insensitivity) or congenital adrenal hyperplasia, in which varying levels of androgen...

Wayne D Tilley Grant Buchanan Gerhard A Coetzee

The androgen-signaling axis is the principal regulator of the development, function, and growth of the prostate gland and plays a vital role in prostate cancer predisposition and progression. The major components of this axis include the biosynthesis and transport of testosterone to target tissues, where it is converted to the more active metabolite 5a-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) maturation of the androgen receptor (AR) to a ligand-binding-competent form nuclear import and the subsequent transcriptional regulation of AR target genes. The AR, which is the pivotal component of androgen signaling, is a member of the superfamily of nuclear transcription factors that regulate a diverse range of cellular functions by providing a direct link between signaling molecules and gene transcription.1-3 The AR is unique among nuclear receptors (NRs) in that a strong constitutive transactivation function involving at least three overlapping regions of the N-terminal domain (NTD) is responsible for...

Androgen Action And Metabolism Of T

T is metabolized to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and to estradiol (E2) in tissues that have 5a-reductase activity and or aromatase activity. DHT is a very potent androgen at the tissue level. It contributes most of the androgenic effects in genital tissues, accessory sex organs, and hair follicles. Five-alpha-reductase activity also is present in some areas of the brain and in bone (Russell et al., 1994). Aromatase activity is primarily present in adipose tissue, so most of the circulating estradiol and estrone in males comes from peripheral conversion of T and andro-stenedione (Simpson et al., 1997). T production rates in young adult males range between 4 and 10 mg 24 hours with an average of 6.6 mg 24 hours (Vermeulen, 1976). In men over age 65, the mean production rate decreases to approximately 4 mg 24 hours. Plasma levels of T reflect an age-related decrease in both secretion and the metabolic clearance rate.

Androgen Receptor CAG Repeat

Receptor dimerization and phosphorylation, nuclear transport, DNA binding, recruitment of components of the transcription machinery (TM) and other cofactor molecules (such as the p160 coactivators), and ultimately activation of androgen-regulated gene pathways. SHBG, sex hormone-binding globulin DHT, dihydrotestosterone CBP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein.

Acne acne vulgaris OMIM 604324

Three etiological factors are known sebum excretion from sebaceous glands, infection, and hair follicle duct obstruction (most sebaceous glands empty into the hair follicle duct). The main determinant of sebum excretion rate is hormonal, principally androgens. Therapies rely on targeting each of the etiological factors reducing sebum excretion (retinoids, estrogens), infection (antibiotics) and duct obstruction (keratolytics).

Importance Of Androgens In The Carcinogenesis Of Prostate Cancer

The prostate is an androgen-dependent organ. Testosterone and androgen precursors freely diffuse into prostate cells. Through a coordinated network of enzymes, they can be rapidly and irreversibly converted to their reduced and more potent metabolic form, dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Both DHT and, to a lesser extent, testosterone bind to and induce the conformational change and activation of the androgen receptor (AR). The activated androgen-receptor complex then binds to the androgen response element (ARE) of androgen-responsive genes and initiates or inhibits their transcription.69-72 After fulfilling their role in transcriptional regulation, DHT and testosterone are oxidized to biologically inactive derivatives by another set of enzymes. The intracellular steady-state active androgen level, which is balanced by the availability of testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the formation of DHT, and the degradation of DHT and other androgens, is thought to be an important...

George V Thomas Charles L Sawyers

Both normal and cancerous prostate cells are dependent on androgens, mainly in the form of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), to promote proliferation and inhibit apoptosis.1-3 Androgen mediates its biological actions through the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-activated transcription factor of the steroid nuclear receptor superfamily (see Color Fig. 18.1 in separate color insert).4-6 Androgen-ablative treatment modalities rely on either surgical or medical castration, the latter usually administered via luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs (termed monotherapy when used singly) and AR antagonists (termed total androgen-ablative therapy when used in combination).7,8 Counter intuitively, AR continues to be expressed even as the cancer progresses from the androgen-dependent (AD) to an androgen-independent (AI) stage. Immuno-histochemical studies have shown the presence of AR in both AD and AI tumors.9,10 A rise in serum prostatic-specific antigen (PSA), an

Tissue Repair and Angiogenic Factors Mediate TVS

The formation of new blood vessels or angiogenesis is broadly divided into the following three phases vessel destabilization, proliferation migration, and vessel maturation (Carmeliet 2003). In normal adults, angiogenesis is normally restricted to formation of placental and endometrial tissue, hair follicle vascu-larization, and tissue repair. During these processes, the endothelium remains inactive due to a balance of positive and negative regulatory factors. When vessel growth is required, the regulatory balance tips toward pro-angiogenic factors. Restoration of steady state is achieved by increasing angiogenesis inhibitors and vessel stabilization factors. Breakdown of the tightly regulated angiogenic balance leads to abnormal angiogenesis and contributes to a variety of pathological disorders, including cancer, autoimmune conditions, and cardiovascular disease (Carmeliet 2003). Leukocytes play a role in normal angiogenesis through contribution of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors,...

Clinical Manifestations

Skin signs varies from 4 to 75 years of age. The most frequently found cutaneous lesions are facial papules, which present as skin-colored or yellowish-tan verrucous papules that can resemble common warts and histologically reveal trichilemmomas or nonspecific hair follicle proliferations. These papules can be very numerous and can coalesce around facial orifices and ears (Fig. 1). The oral lesions present as 1 to 3 mm skin-colored papules, which can coalesce to form a characteristic cobblestone pattern (Fig. 2), or can be so extensive that they involve the entire oral cavity, including the tongue. Involvement of the mucosa is seen in over 80 of patients and usually follows the development of the facial lesions. Other cutaneous findings in CS include lipomas, hemangiomas, xanthomas, vitiligo, neuromas, cafe-au-lait spots, periorificial and acral lentigines, and acanthosis nigricans (2).

Allergic Reactions And Other Toxicities

One of the most common acute side effects of germ cell tumor treatment is alopecia. The principal agents that cause alopecia are etoposide, ifosfamide, and paclitaxel only WHO grade I hair loss is associated with cisplatin, vinblastine, and bleomycin, as single agents. With combination chemotherapy, used predominantly for treating this disease, the majority of patients will suffer significant alopecia.1315,50

Biological Functions of Shps

The phenotypes of me me and mev mev mice differ only in severity, with me me mice succumbing to abnormalities earlier (2-3 weeks) than mev mev (9-12 weeks) 93-98 . For this reason, we use me to refer generically to Shp1-deficient mice. The me phenotype derives its name from patchy hair loss, which gives the mice a motheaten appearance. The hair loss, in turn, results from sterile dermal abscesses consisting of neu-trophils. Inflammation also is prominent elsewhere, including the joints, liver, and lungs. The latter leads to the early demise of me mice, due to severe interstitial pneumonitis caused by

Bosnia And Herzegovina

American cockroach Bed bug Book scorpion Brown mayfly Brownbanded cockroach Common harvestman Devil's coach-horse European mantid European stag beetle German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Large blue

T187m R227q F234l F194l

Several other androgen-signaling genes have been preliminarily studied in the context of prostate cancer risk. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol in a series of enzymatic steps involving several of the cytochrome P-450 enzymes.64 The enzyme cytochrome P-450c17 catalyzes two sequential reactions of the biosynthesis of T, in both the gonads and the adrenals. The first step is the conversion of pregnenolone to 17-hydroxypregnenolone (hydroxylase activity), and the second is its subsequent conversion to C19 steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (lyase activity), a steroid with androgenic activity.64 The CYP17 gene on chromosome 10 encodes the P-450c17 enzyme involved in these two sequential reactions in T biosynthesis.65 A T-to-C transition SNP exists in the 5'-UTR of the CYP17 gene (A2 allele).66 While the functional relevance of this polymorphism is in dispute, it has been linked to polycystic ovarian cancer risk in women, male pattern baldness in men,66 various estrogen metabolic...

Potential endocrine causes of hypoactive sexual desire disorder

We will now turn to some observations contradicting the notion of reduced androgen concentration in women with low sexual desire. In a study employing women with loss of libido assessed by a psychosexual counselor and a group of healthy controls of about the same age, no difference between women with low desire and the controls was found with regard to blood concentrations of total testosterone, free testosterone, sex-hormone binding globulin, estradiol, dihydrotestosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (Nyunt et al., 2005). The criteria for being considered a patient were less clear in this study than in any of those mentioned above, strongly reducing the value of its results. Nevertheless, they coincide with results reported by van Anders et al. (2005). These researchers measured testosterone in saliva rather than in blood, but that has become a popular procedure and it may perhaps be acceptable. The patients were assessed through a careful clinical interview. No difference in...

Scalp and Facial Hair Patterning

Hair directional slope is secondary to the plane of stretch exerted on the skin by the growth of underlying tissues during the period of down-growth of the hair follicles at around 10-12 weeks gestation. The posterior parietal hair whorl is interpreted as the focal point from which the growth stretch is exerted by the dome-like out-growth of the brain during the time of hair follicle development. Malformations that antedate hair follicle development, such as encephalocele, produce aberrations in scalp patterning. Eighty-five percent of patients with primary microcephaly have altered scalp hair patterning, indicating an early onset of abnormal brain development. Aberrant scalp patterning is also found frequently in association with established syndromes including Down syndrome. Thus, aberrant scalp hair patterning may be utilized as an indicator of altered size and or shape of the brain prior to 12 weeks gestation. Early anomalies in development of the eye and of the face can...

Integumentary form and function

The dermis is mainly a supportive layer for the epidermis and binds it to underlying tissues. Blood vessels in the dermis pass near the basal layer of the epidermis and provide the cells of the avascular epidermis with nutrients. The dermis also contains muscle fibers, associated with hair follicles, and nervous tissue that provides assessment of the environment. A subcutaneous layer lies below the dermis and is a site of adipose (fat) deposition, which serves as both insulation and energy storage. Mammals have a number of skin glands that are found in no other vertebrate. Mammals have two types of coiled, tubular sweat glands, apocrine (or sudoriferous) and eccrine. Apocrine sweat glands are usually associated with a hair follicle, and secrete the odorous component of sweat. Eccrine sweat glands secrete sweat onto the surface of the skin to remove heat through evaporative cooling. Most mammals have both these glands in the foot pads. They are more widely distributed on a few mammals,...

Agouti Signaling Protein

In the mouse hair follicle, the agouti signaling protein (ASP) antagonizes the action of a-MSH, resulting in less melanin production. Temporal expression of ASP results in the characteristic light dark banding pattern seen in mice hair known as agouti. In vitro studies have shown ASP to have inverse agonist activity at mouse Mc1r,201 and reduces both eumelanin and pheomelanin synthesis.202 Humans do not show this agouti hair pattern, nor have human melanocytes been shown to produce the human homolog ASIP endogenously. However, some studies have demonstrated inhibitory effects of ASIP on the action of a-MSH in human melanocytes in vitro. , Conflicting results were obtained when Healy and coworkers204 rescued Mc1r deficient mice using mouse bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) constructs containing the human MC1R sequence, turning the mice from yellow (pheomelanogenic) to black (eumelanogenic). In these studies, it was found that the human MC1R in the transgenic mice was resistant to...

Magea4

Most of the etiologic and epidemiologic associations appear to point to an origin in atypical germ cells. The association of testicular maldescent and the formation of testicular tumors has been known for more than 200 years,84,85 and atypical germ cells have been identified in cryptorchid testicles.22 Similarly, testicular cancer is found more commonly in patients with testicular dysgenesis, infertility, and Kleinfelter's syndrome (with expression of an XXY chromosome). Additional epidemiologic associations include reduced body muscle mass and a lower prevalence of male pattern baldness, which may imply lower circulating testosterone levels, as either a cause or an effect of testicular cancer.86 Although testicular trauma and mumps orchitis have largely been discounted as antecedents of GCTs,87,88 earlier studies suggested that both could have mechanisms of oncogenesis predicated on testicular atrophy and the consequent evolution of atypical germ cells. Similar mechanisms have been...

Etiology

Possible associations with androgen levels have been explored, using proxies. Two presumed proxies for testosterone levels are a history of severe acne during puberty and male pattern baldness as both are associated with somewhat higher testosterone levels. A history of both conditions may be less frequent among men who develop testicular cancer.84 In addition, testicular germ cell tumors and CIS are observed in patients who are in a low-androgen state.89 While animal experiments show that androgen is required for testicular descent,90 a limited number of epidemiologic studies suggest that a high proportion of boys with cryptorchidism have normal androgen action and response.91,92 Some cases of hypospadias have been attributed to defects of androgen action or response, but this mechanism appears to account for only a small proportion of

Properties

The glycoprotein SHBG is produced and secreted by hepatocytes.79 It has a molecular weight of approximately 90,000 daltons, and its primary structure is known from both direct se-quencing80 and the cloning of its cDNA.81-83 The gene encodes a single polypeptide chain, which is then glycosylated. The active binding unit is a homodimer, which contains three oligosaccharide chains that vary in content.80,84 Each mole of the homodimer binds a single mole of steroid. SHBG has a half-life of approximately 6 days and binds with high affinity to three major circulating steroids.78 It binds with highest affinity to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), followed by testosterone and then estradiol (Ka of 5.5 X 109, 1.6 X 109, and 6.8 X 108, respectively).77

Major Risk Factors

Testosterone in prostate cells through irreversible conversion to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (6). Our research, while focused entirely on healthy populations, nonetheless suggested the possibility that there are differences in testosterone biosynthesis and metabolism across racial-ethnic groups that might help explain their varying rates of PCA. Of course, demonstrating that testosterone or

Dose Escalation

With an initial shoulder and subsequent slope is clearly identified. These cell-survival curves are best described by a linear-quadratic function. In the human context, very clear dose-dependent phenomena such as hair loss, cataract formation, skin reactions, and xerostomia can be quantified. These clinical dose-response curves are characterized by a sigmoidal shape, with low doses initially producing a relatively flat response curve, but demonstrating an upward response-inflection after a certain threshold dose, beyond which the response slope is large for a minimal change in dose at much higher doses, there is a flattening of the curve, resulting in lower incremental gain. One example of such a dose-response relationship is illustrated in Fig. 1. For malignant brain tumors such as GBM, most therapeutic trials have explored the 0 to 60 Gy dose range, a few hyperfractionation trials have explored doses up to 80 Gy and brachytherapy trials have reached 100 to 120 Gy. Although the...

Menkes Disease

Menkes' syndrome is an X-linked (Xq13.3) recessive disorder associated to copper deficiency, lethal in the early childhood (27). The most striking feature of this disease is the coarse and hypopigmented hair therefore, it is also called kinky or steely hair disease. Menkes' children show impaired synthesis of collagen and elastin. Furthermore, they are severely mentally retarded altered brain development and neurodegeneration have been detected by postmortem histological assay (28). In particular, diffuse atrophy, focal degeneration of gray matter, and prominent neuronal loss has been detected in the cerebellum. Purkinje cells show abnormal dendridic arborization and focal axonal swelling. These features are present at birth, indicating that copper is essential for prenatal growth and development of the central nervous system. The molecular basis of this syndrome has recently been discovered, by identifying a mutated gene (ATP7A) encoding for a P-type cation-transporting ATPase...

Chemotherapy

Cooley et al. (2007) confirmed a clinical benefit of pegylated liposomal doxorubi-cin in 80 of all patients treated and a tumour response rate in 55 . The most important side effects of anthracyclines are neutropenia (30 ), nausea, asthenia and anemia. This usually occurs after 8-10 cycles. The cardiotoxicity associated with anthracyclines should also be considered. However, usually it only occurs with long-term administration (cumulative doses of 450 mg doxorubicin and higher). Macular and painful erythema of the palms and soles (palmoplantar erythrodyses-thesia) is another notable side effect which can limit treatment. Paclitaxel is also a very effective drug for the treatment of KS (Tulpule 2002). The recommended dose is 100 mg m2 body surface area administered intravenously over 3-4 hours every 2 weeks. Partial remission is achieved in up to 60 of all treated patients. Paclitaxel is myelotoxic and almost always leads to alopecia, often after just one dose. Whether paclitaxel has...

Physical Differences

On the average, girls reach puberty 2 years earlier than boys, and in junior high school some boys may feel like shrimps alongside their female classmates. By the time both sexes have completed adolescence, females have substantially more body fat (70 more) than males but are shorter (5 inches), less muscular (40 less), and have less facial hair (Myers, 1995). These differences persist and others develop in young adulthood. For example, pattern baldness often starts showing in adult males in their late teens or early twenties. And with respect to the biology of sexual behavior, young women are more likely to become sexually aroused soon after experiencing orgasm.

Skin Color

Remarks For documentation of skin color, a color photograph is useful. The color of tooth enamel, nails, iris, body, and scalp hair, as well as skin, should be recorded. The skin around the nipple, especially after pregnancy, may be darker due to hormonal influences. Genital skin and areas of apocrine sweating are usually darker. Pigment changes can occur in specific diseases, such as Addison disease (a bronze skin color) or albinism (where the skin and hair pigment may be reduced or absent).

Nuclear Structure

Effectively resulting in a protein with a 50 amino acid deletion near the C-terminus of lamin A. This deletion allows farnesylation but prevents proteolytic cleavage of the prelamin A to generate the final product. The resulting mutant lamin A acts in a dominant fashion (patients are heterozygous), and the aberrant protein is called progerin. Although mouse models accurately mimicking the human defect are now being generated in different laboratories, two potentially relevant mouse models deserve some discussion. The first is a null mouse for the gene Zmptse24 metalloproteinase, an enzyme involved in the proteolytic processing of prelamin A. Apart from nuclear abnormalities, this model shows growth retardation, alopecia, bone fractures, muscle weakness, and early cardiac dysfunction (Bergo et al., 2002). More recently, accelerated aging in these mice has been linked to p53 signalling activation, supporting the concept that hyperactivation of the tumour suppressor p53 may cause...

Back To Mitochondria

Another example of a mouse model with a defect in genome maintenance especially designed to test the hypothesis that genomic instability is involved in aging is the PolgA proofreading-deficient mouse model. PolgA, the catalytic core of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma (Polg), is a mtDNA polymerase, encoded in the nuclear genome. Hence, proofreading defects in this gene would be expected to lead to increased mutations in the mitochondrial genome. Mutations in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA have been demonstrated to accumulate with age in a tissue-specific pattern (Arnheim and Cortopassi, 1992 Vijg and Dolle, 2002). Hence, in the PolgA deficient mouse we would expect to see the premature appearance of aging-related phenotypes, which turned out to be correct. Apart from a three- to fivefold increase in mtDNA mutations in brain, heart, and liver, and respiratory chain dysfunction in the heart, a host of premature aging symptoms was observed in this mutant, including...

Studies in primates

In the rhesus monkey, the androgen-producing activity of the fetal testes is initiated around day 40 of the about 170 days of gestation. It continues at peak level until around day 75, when it starts to decline. There is a second peak around day 140. Male fetuses have higher concentrations of testosterone than female fetuses, but there is no difference in dihydrotestosterone or androstenedione (Resko and Ellinwood, 1981 Resko, 1985). Androgen receptors are mainly localized to the fetal preoptic area anterior hypothalamus, the amygdala and the cerebellum. There is no difference in receptor concentration between males and females, except in the amygdala where males have more receptors than females (Pomerantz and Sholl, 1987). These results were confirmed and extended in a study of androgen uptake in the fetal rhesus brain. Androgen uptake was largest in the preoptic area, followed by the amygdala. Interestingly, 75 of the androgen taken up into the preoptic area was aromatized to...

Grassland

Brownbanded cockroach Common harvestman Death's head hawk moth Emperor scorpion European earwig European marsh crane fly European mantid Garden symphylan German cockroach Giant whip scorpion Gladiator Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Indian stick insect Large blue

Rainforest

Cubacubana spelaea Dead-leaf mantid Dead leaf mimetica Emperor scorpion European earwig Forest giant German cockroach Giant water bug Giraffe-necked weevil Green lacewing Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Hair follicle mite Hercules beetle Hispaniola hooded katydid Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Javan leaf insect Jungle nymph Leaf-cutter ant Linnaeus's snapping termite Madeira cockroach Mantid lacewing Mediterranean fruit fly

Porphyrias

Thyroid hormone plays a critical role in regulating metabolism. In hypothyroidism, the basal metabolic rate is decreased due to a lack of thyroid hormone, resulting in bradycardia, cold intolerance, alopecia, and weight gain. Neurologic symptoms are relatively common in hypothyroidism and include paresthesias in up to 80 of patients as well as ataxia, coma, headache, seizure, cerebellar signs, and psychosis (132,133). Cranial nerve involvement has also been reported, with the vestibulocochlear nerve most commonly affected in 15 to 31 of patients with hypothyroidism (132). Involvement of the facial nerve is considered rare. Its mechanism is thought to be a compressive phenomenon. In hypothyroidism, myxedematous infiltration and swelling of the soft tissue are hypothesized to have a compressive effect on the facial nerve through the tight confines of the fallopian canal. Anecdotal reports of facial nerve decompression in hypothyroidism have been described (134), but additional reports...

RHulL11

In a review by Smith (17), the safety and tolerability of rHuIL-11 administered sc at the recommended dose of 50 g kg d was compared with placebo in two phase 2 studies. The dataset included 308 patients, ranging from 8 mo to 75 yr of age, who received up to eight sequential 1-28-d courses of oprelvekin. In this group, aside from complications associated with underlying malignancy or cytotoxic chemotherapy, most adverse events were of mild or moderate severity and were reversible after cessation of the growth factor. The incidence and type of adverse events were similar between patients who received oprelvekin and those who received placebo. Edema, dyspnea, tachycardia, conjunctival injection, palpitations, and pleural effusion occurred more frequently in the oprelvekin-treated patients. Adverse events that occurred in 10 of patients and were observed in equal or greater frequency among patients receiving placebo included asthenia, pain, chills, abdominal pain, infection, anorexia,...

Andorra

Book scorpion Brown mayfly Brownbanded cockroach Common harvestman Death's head hawk moth Devil's coach-horse European earwig European mantid European stag beetle German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Large blue

Australia

Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Liposcelis bostrychophila Long-bodied cellar spider Lucerne flea Macleay's specter Mantid lacewing Mediterranean fruitfly Moth lacewing Oriental cockroach Pea aphid Scolopender Silverfish Spider bat fly

Austria

American cockroach Bed bug Book scorpion Brown mayfly Common harvestman Devil's coach-horse European earwig European mantid European marsh crane fly European stag beetle Flat-backed millipede German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Large blue

Belgium

American cockroach Antlion Bed bug Book scorpion Brown mayfly Common harvestman Devil's coach-horse European earwig European marsh crane fly European stag beetle Flat-backed millipede German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee

Bulgaria

American cockroach Bed bug Book scorpion Brown mayfly Brownbanded cockroach Common harvestman Death's head hawk moth Devil's coach-horse European mantid European stag beetle German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee

Canada

Walkingstick Common harvestman Eastern dobsonfly Eastern subterranean termite European earwig European mantid European marsh crane fly German cockroach Giant salmonfly Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth

Croatia

American cockroach Bed bug Book scorpion Brown mayfly Brownbanded cockroach Common harvestman Death's head hawk moth Devil's coach-horse European earwig European mantid European stag beetle German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Large blue

Czech Republic

American cockroach Bed bug Book scorpion Brown mayfly Common harvestman Devil's coach-horse European earwig European marsh crane fly European stag beetle Flat-backed millipede German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee

Endocrine Changes

Low levels of testosterone increase the risk of vascular disease and testosterone replacement in hypogonadal men protects against cardiac ischemia. Sex steroids are able to modify processes at the vascular endothelium that regulate constriction or vasodilatation of vessels and can also regulate the proliferation of endothelial or smooth muscle cells. Circulating sex steroid status is only a partial reflection of activity at the tissue level where androgen status may be amplified by the action of the enzyme 5a-reductase, which converts testosterone to the more active hormone dihydrotestosterone. Testosterone is also converted to estrogen peripherally by the action of aromatase. The activity of aromatase is increased in obesity. In men and in postmenopausal women, estrogen is more of a local hormone than a circulating hormone, but concentrations and activities at the tissue level are relatively hard to study.

Germany

American cockroach Antlion Bed bug Book scorpion Brown mayfly Common harvestman Devil's coach-horse European earwig European mantid European marsh crane fly European stag beetle Flat-backed millipede German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee

Macedonia

Common harvestman Death's head hawk moth Devil's coach-horse European earwig European mantid European stag beetle German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth

Moldova

American cockroach Bed bug Book scorpion Brown mayfly Common harvestman Death's head hawk moth Devil's coach-horse European earwig European stag beetle German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee

Morocco

Death's head hawk moth Devil's coach-horse European earwig European mantid German cockroach Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Liposcelis bostrychophila Long-bodied cellar spider Long-winged conehead Lucerne flea Mediterranean fruitfly Sacred scarab Scolopender Silverfish

Poland

American cockroach Bed bug Book scorpion Brown mayfly Common harvestman Devil's coach-horse European earwig European marsh crane fly European stag beetle German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee

Portugal

American cockroach Antlion Bed bug Book scorpion Brown mayfly Brownbanded cockroach Common harvestman Death's head hawk moth Devil's coach-horse European earwig European mantid German cockroach Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Large blue

Romania

American cockroach Bed bug Book scorpion Brown mayfly Common harvestman Death's head hawk moth Devil's coach-horse European earwig European mantid European stag beetle German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee

San Marino

American cockroach Antlion Bed bug Book scorpion Brown mayfly Brownbanded cockroach Common harvestman Death's head hawk moth Devil's coach-horse European earwig European mantid European stag beetle Flat-backed millipede German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Large blue

Slovenia

Book scorpion Brown mayfly Brownbanded cockroach Common harvestman Death's head hawk moth Devil's coach-horse European earwig European mantid European stag beetle Flat-backed millipede German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Large blue

Switzerland

American cockroach Antlion Bed bug Book scorpion Brown mayfly Brownbanded cockroach Common harvestman Devil's coach-horse European earwig European mantid European marsh crane fly European stag beetle Flat-backed millipede German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Large blue

Greece

American cockroach Bed bug Book scorpion Brown mayfly Brownbanded cockroach Common harvestman Death's head hawk moth European earwig European mantid European stag beetle German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth

France

Death's head hawk moth Devil's coach-horse European earwig European mantid European marsh crane fly European stag beetle Flat-backed millipede German cockroach Great water beetle Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Large blue

Algeria

Camel spider Death's head hawk moth Devil's coach-horse European mantid German cockroach Greenhouse camel cricket Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Liposcelis bostrychophila Long-bodied cellar spider Long-winged conehead Lucerne flea Mediterranean fruitfly Sacred scarab Scolopender Silverfish

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Hair Loss Prevention

Hair Loss Prevention

The best start to preventing hair loss is understanding the basics of hair what it is, how it grows, what system malfunctions can cause it to stop growing. And this ebook will cover the bases for you. Note that the contents here are not presented from a medical practitioner, and that any and all dietary and medical planning should be made under the guidance of your own medical and health practitioners. This content only presents overviews of hair loss prevention research for educational purposes and does not replace medical advice from a professional physician.

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