The Selling Of The Apples Acceptance Collaborations And Invitations

Well, our ''apples'' sold fast and widely. Science published our first paper (Zu Rhein and Chou, 1965). Dr. Zimmerman had agreed that we should not wait for the publication of the ARNMD volume, which indeed became delayed for 4 years. A neighbor in the Bronx was Dr. Ludwik Gross, Director of the Cancer Research Unit of the VA Medical Center. A pioneer in virus research, he had stood at the cradle of the polyoma virus. Some of his work had also been met with disbelief early on. He was a virologist well versed in viral morphology. When he reviewed our PML electron micrographs, he shared our interpretation with enthusiasm. He invited me subsequently to join him in a research seminar on ''Viruses in Disease.'' We stayed in close contact for the later editions of the Oncogenic Viruses. Dr. Richard Shope (Rockefeller University), discoverer of the rabbit papilloma virus, also became an immediate supporter during a laboratory visit. ''You are in business'' he told me with confidence and true joy.

The first international support, early in 1965, came from Dr. Allan F. Howatson, of the Ontario Cancer Institute, who had extensive experience with the ultrastructure of wart and polyoma viruses. He requested PML tissue in order to apply the negative staining method developed in 1959 by Brenner and Horne for the visualization of viral capsid details in spray preparations. Despite the original formalin fixation of the tissues, it was possible to classify the PML virions as polyoma rather than papilloma virions (Howatson, et al., 1965). Previously, it had been the smaller particle size alone that made us favor poly-oma virions. In 1966, Dr. Howatson collaborated with Dr. Chou and myself in a poster exhibit entitled ''Polyoma-like Virions in a Human Demyelinating Disease,'' which was shown during the annual meetings of the American Academy of Neurology (Fig. 2.3) and the Electron Microscopy Society of America. In it, the PML virions were compared with polyoma virions in infected mouse kidney.


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