Uniform Crime Reports

Crime is considered one of the major problems in the United States and countries throughout the world by law enforcement authorities, political leaders, and the public at large. To provide detailed public information on the incidence of crimes of various kinds in the United States, and to serve as a basis for action in legislative action and law enforcement, each year the Federal Bureau of Investigation publishes a new edition of Crime in the United States Uniform Crime Reports. This...

Theories Of Personality Development

The idea that the experiences of childhood are important determiners of adult personality is a part of folklore as old as humanity itself. However, Sigmund Freud proposed the first systematic theory of how childhood experiences leave an imprint on the individual that persists into adulthood. To Freud, adult personality and character are end products of the frustrations and conflicts experienced by the child during the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages of psychosexual development....

Levinsons Stages of

According to transition theorists, psychological needs such as control over one's life, enthusiasm for activities, commitments to other people and values, and the belief that one matters to others cannot be satisfied for all time but must be continuously renegotiated. Because the demands and expectations of society change as one passes through the age-graded social structure, the individual must acquire new attitudes, roles, and beliefs in order to fulfill his or her needs. The nature of the...

Fears of Death

Adolescents, who need to maintain the illusion of invulnerability, usually reject thoughts of death (Kastenbaum, 1959). Like many adults, they tend to see death as something that happens to other people but not to them, or at least not until sometime in the distant future. However, the rapid changes in adolescents' physical structure and functioning may alarm those who have not been properly informed about what to expect and even make them feel as if they are about to die. Adolescents are also...

Stages in Dying

Persons who die suddenly from an accident or other trauma have, of course, the shortest of all dying trajectories and no choice in the matter. But persons who are suffering from terminal disorders, who have been informed that their condition is terminal and even approximately how much time they have left, experience many emotional ups and downs. Elisabeth Kiibler-Ross (1969) maintained that in the interval between the time when they are informed that their illness is terminal and when they...

The Somesthetic Senses

The somesthetic senses consist of the cutaneous (skin) senses (pressure, pain, warmth, cold), the kinesthetic sense, and the vestibular senses. Receptors for the kinesthetic senses, which provide information on the position of the limbs, are located in the muscles and joints. Receptors for the vestibular senses, which provide information on the position and movement of the head, are located in the inner ear. The receptors for the vestibular senses consist of hair cells in the semicircular...

The Adult Population

Whether adulthood begins at age 20, 25, or even later, as illustrated in Figure 1-1 adults are far and away the largest portion of the general population. Over 74 of the entire U.S. population consists of adults over 18 years of age. These percentages vary with gender and ethnicity. In 1997, approximately 48 of those 18 years and over were male 52 female 84 white 11.7 black .8 Native American, Eskimo, and Aleut 3.6 Asian Pacific Islander and 9.5 of Hispanic1 origin (unpublished data, U.S....

Eriksons Psychosocial Stages

Unlike classical psychoanalysis, which viewed personality as essentially complete by adolescence, Erik Erikson (1963) maintained that personality continues developing throughout an individual's lifetime. Also unlike Freudian theory, Erikson's stages are psychosocial rather than psychosexual. Erikson emphasized the importance of social interactions in the resolution of the crisis or conflict at each stage. The first five stages in his model of development are temporally parallel to Freud's five...

Varieties of Love

Some observers see love as a unidimensional state ranging in intensity from simple liking to profound, passionate affection for another person. Other philosophers and psychologists have viewed love as multidimensional, varying not only in depth but also in kind. One ancient classification system, which differentiates between the eros of Plato, the philia of Aristotle, and the agape of St. Paul, was adopted by Rollo May (1969) in his theory of love and is described in Table 6-1. Perhaps more...

Funeral Practices

Historically, funerals were designed to serve the purposes of honoring the dead, supplying them with the means for existence in the next world and gaining favor with the gods. Funerals still honor the dead, but the main function served by modern funeral practices is to allow survivors to work through their own feelings concerning the deceased. However, the sense of loss, sadness, and other feelings associated with the death of a loved one do not end with the funeral. A period of bereavement and...

Musculoskeletal System

Just as the cardiovascular and respiratory systems work together, the musculoskeletal, nervous, and sensory systems cooperate in the performance of psychomotor skills. The musculoskeletal system consists of the striped muscles and bones whose purpose is to move the arms, legs, and other mobile organs of the body. The efficiency with which such movement takes place depends on the condition of the muscle cells, the bones, and the joints at which the bones are connected with each other....

Theories Of Biological Aging

As witnessed by the search for the fountain of youth and the time-honored popularity of tales and treatments concerned with the aging process, prolongevity has been a continuing quest since the dawn of human history. Although the commercial and health literature abounds with suggestions for staying healthy, looking good, and living as long as one can, the inevitability of corporeal existence is universally recognized. Acceptance of personal mortality does not mean, however, that the human life...

Lifethreatening Disorders

The 10 leading causes ofdeath in the United States in 1995 were, in order, diseases of heart, malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, accidents and adverse effects, pneumonia and influenza, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection, suicide, and chronic liver disease and cirrhosis (Rosenberg, Ventura, Maurer, Heuser, & Freedman, Sometimes I think of my back pain as a familiar companion. He may not be overly friendly, but he certainly has remained with me...