Human Anatomy and Physiology Study Course
And Clinical Applications, Tenth Edition, by Stuart I. Fox, is self-contained so students can prepare for laboratory exercises and quizzes without having to bring the textbook to the laboratory. The introduction to each exercise contains cross-references to the pages in this textbook where related information can be found. Similarly, those figures in the lab manual that correspond to full-color figures in the textbook are also cross-referenced. Both of these mechanisms help students better integrate the lecture and laboratory portions of their course. The manual provides laboratory exercises, classroom tested for a number of years, that reinforce many of the topics covered in this textbook and in the human physiology course.
Each chapter has a consistent organization to help students learn the concepts explained in the text and illustrated in the figures. The numerous pedagogical features can aid students in their quest to master new terminology, learn new concepts, analyze and understand physiological principles, and finally apply this knowledge in practical ways. The chapter organization, and the learning devices built into each chapter, facilitates this growth by providing mechanisms for active learning of the chapter contents. Because mastery of the content of a human physiology course requires such active learning, students are advised to make use of the learning aids in each chapter.
The term HPer Links is a hybrid of hyperlinks and the initials of Human Physiology. On the Internet, a hyperlink is a reference that you can click with a mouse to jump from one part of a document or web page to another. Students can use the cross-references offered on the Interactions pages in a similar way to find interrelated topics in the textbook. Fox Human Physiology, I Front Matter I Preface I I The McGraw-Hill
The Human Physiology Online Learning Center at www.mhhe.com fox8 is a comprehensive website created for instructors and students using the Fox textbook. For details about the student assets included on this site, please refer to the inside front cover of this book. The Online Learning Center allows instructors complete access to all student features, as well as exclusive access to a separate Instructor Center that houses downloadable and printable versions of traditional an-cillaries, plus additional instructor content. Contact your McGraw-Hill sales representative for your instructor user name and password. Fox Human Physiology, I Front Matter I Preface I I The McGraw-Hill
The study of physiology requires some familiarity with the basic concepts and terminology of chemistry. A knowledge of atomic and molecular structure,the nature of chemical bonds, and the nature of pH and associated concepts provides the foundation for much of human physiology.
Nails are modified claws found on the first digit of some arboreal mammals and on all the digits of some primates. Nails cover only the dorsal part of digits. The unguis (called a nail plate in human anatomy) is broad and flat, and the sub-unguis is vestigial. It has been suggested that nails evolved in primates to prevent rolling and provide flat support for the large pad of tactile sensory tissue found on the underside of the digit. Thus nails allow both increased tactile perception and enhanced manipulative abilities. The Callitrichidae (small monkeys found in South and Central America) have secondarily evolved claws, which are not true claws because they are derived from the laterally compressed nails of their ancestors. Nails and claws may be found on the same mammal (e.g., hyraxes).
Vesalius' own anatomy education was typical for the time. The professor sat in his chair (hence professorships are called 'chairs') and read out loud from the only locally available textbook. He sat at a safe distance from a human body that was being dissected by his assistant. It did not take long for Vesalius to realize that he and his fellow students were being told one thing by their professor, and were being shown something else by the professor's assistant. In 1540 Vesalius visited Bologna where, for the first time, he was able to compare the skeletons of a monkey and a human. He realized the textbooks used by his professors were based on a confusing mixture of human, monkey, and dog anatomy, so he resolved to write his own, accurate, human anatomy book. The result, the seven-volume De Humani Corporis Fabrica Libri Septem, or 'On the Fabric of the Human Body', was published in 1543. Vesalius performed the dissections and sketched the drafts of the illustrations the Fabrica is...
The significance and validity with respect to usefulness in terms of extrapolatability of results generated in an animal model depend on the selection of a suitable animal model. A good knowledge of comparative anatomy and physiology is an obvious advantage when developing an animal model. Animal models may be found throughout the animal kingdom, and knowledge about human physiology has been achieved in species far removed from the human in terms of evolutionary development. A good example is the importance of the fruit fly for the original studies of basic genetics. Animal models are used in virtually every field of biomedical research, as reflected in the chapters of this book.
The establishment of human fecal microbes within animals, provides the opportunity for the study of a microbiota of human origin within these animals. Human flora associated animals (HFA) have proven to be particularly valuable in studies of the metabolic and immunological activities of the human microbiota. Athough HFA animals are valuable for investigations related to the human microbiota, several differences between animal and human physiology may influence colonization by the human microbiota in animal hosts. Such differences may promote host-specific colonization by microorganisms in different animals (92,93). As a result, microbes of human origin may be disadvantaged in the animal GIT, compared to isolates originating from this particular animal species.
Recently, the use of nonhuman primates also was advocated as being close to human physiology and pathophysiology (Bruns et al., 2004). Obviously their use is not easy and is very costly. Nevertheless, in some circumstances their use, such as the study of factors related to insulin sensitivity, proved to be very rewarding.
It is important to keep in mind that DTI tractography is simply defining a model system for brain connectivity. The choice of a particular seed point will influence the derived tracts because of the inherent noise in the data acquisition and the sensitivity of the chosen algorithm to this noise. Tractog-raphy is blind to whether the seed point derives from a functional activation or from a well-placed ROI based on expert anatomical knowledge. Therefore, the tracts indicate only the possibility of an anatomical connection between a set of regions tracts based on functional activations carry no additional meaning relative to those derived based on anatomical knowledge. Methods such as those being developed by the Oxford group (e.g., Behrens et al. 2006) will allow for refined anatomical models, but then the task will be to move beyond describing the possibility for information flow to describing how and when information is conveyed along the identified connections.
Nevertheless, the use of baboons and other nonhuman primates has many advantages as an experimental model in transplant research. First, the size and anatomy of the baboon is very similar to human anatomy. Second, the growth of the baboon can be controlled, and adult weights in the range of20-30 kg are maintained for 20-30 yr. In addition, cardiac physiological characteristics of the baboon are similar to humans, allowing for the use of standard operative instrumentation.
Human physiology is the study of how the human body functions, with emphasis on specific cause-and-effect mechanisms. Knowledge of these mechanisms has been obtained experimentally through applications of the scientific method. The physiology of invertebrates and of different vertebrate groups is studied in the science of comparative physiology. Much of the knowledge gained from comparative physiology has benefited the study of human physiology. This is because animals, including humans, are more alike than they are different. This is especially true when comparing humans with other mammals. The small differences in physiology between humans and other mammals can be of crucial importance in the development of pharmaceutical drugs (discussed later in this section), but these differences are relatively slight in the overall study of physiology.
Anatomy, physiology, and psychophysiology are all branches of science organized around bodily systems with the collective aim of elucidating the structure and function of the parts of, and interrelated systems in, the human body in transactions with the environment. Anatomy is the science of body structure and the relationships among structures. In the following section, we review some of the major historical developments that have influenced contemporary thinking and research in psychophysiology. As might be expected from the discussion thus far, many of these early developments have stemmed from studies of human anatomy and physiology.
Internal anatomy of the heart. The walls of the heart contain three layers the superficial epicardium the middle myocardium, which is composed of cardiac muscle and the inner endocardium. Note that cardiac muscle cells contain intercalated disks that enable the cells to communicate and allow direct transmission of electrical impulses from one cell to another. (Fig. 21.3, p. 553 from Human Anatomy, 4th Ed. by Frederic H. Martini, Michael J. Timmons, and Robert B. Tallitsch. 2003 by Frederic H. Martini, Inc. and Michael J. Timmons.) Fig. 7. Internal anatomy of the heart. The walls of the heart contain three layers the superficial epicardium the middle myocardium, which is composed of cardiac muscle and the inner endocardium. Note that cardiac muscle cells contain intercalated disks that enable the cells to communicate and allow direct transmission of electrical impulses from one cell to another. (Fig. 21.3, p. 553 from Human Anatomy, 4th Ed. by Frederic H. Martini, Michael J....
Studies of human anatomy during this period in history also began to uncover errors in Galen's descriptions (e.g., Vesalius, 1543 1947), opening the way for questions of his methods and of his theory of physiological functioning and symptomatology. Within a century, two additional events occurred that had a profound impact on the nature of inference in psychophysiology. In 1600, William Gilberd (1544-1603) recognized a difference between electricity and magnetism and, more importantly, argued in his book, De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de Magno magnete tellure, that empirical observations and experiments should replace the probable guesses and opinions of the ordinary professors of philosophy. Francis Bacon (1561-1626) took the scientific method a step further in Novum Organum (1620 1855), adding induction to observation and adding verification to inference. Bacon was not a scientist, yet he is regarded as a forerunner of the hypothetico-deductive method (Brazier, 1959 Caws,...
McGraw-Hill, New York, NY. Germann, W.J. and Stanfield, C.L. (eds.) (2002) Principles of Human Physiology. Pearson Education Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco, CA. Guyton, A.C. and Hall, J.E. (eds.) (2000) Textbook of Medical Physiology,
Cilia are tiny hairlike structures that project from the surface of a cell and, like the coordinated action of rowers in a boat, stroke in unison. Cilia in the human body are found on the apical surface (the surface facing the lumen, or cavity) of stationary epithelial cells in the respiratory and female reproductive tracts. In the respiratory system, the cilia transport strands of mucus to the pharynx (throat), where the mucus can either be swallowed or expectorated. In the female reproductive tract, ciliary movements in the epithelial lining of the uterine tube draw the ovum (egg) into the tube and move it toward the uterus. Fox Human Physiology, I 3. Cell Structure and I Text I I The McGraw-Hill Sperm cells are the only cells in the human body that have flagella. The flagellum is a single whiplike structure that propels the sperm cell through its environment. Both cilia and flagella are composed of microtubules (thin cylinders formed from proteins) arranged in a characteristic way....
While no one strain is a perfect model for all aspects of human aging, different strains have characteristics valuable for modeling specific aspects of human physiology or disease, and the use of inbred strains allows the investigator to choose a model with characteristics pertinent to the questions at hand. For example, DBA 2 mice are useful for modeling epilepsy and related seizure disorders, as they are very sensitive to audiogenic and electrogenic seizures, while C57BL 6 mice are resistant
Considerable confusion and controversy surrounds the role of leptin in human physiology generally and pubertal development in particular.78-82 Leptin is a 16-KDa cytokine of the tumor necrosis factor group coded by the ob gene. In rodents, leptin appears to affect hypothalamic centers, regulating food intake and energy expenditure. Deficiency in either leptin (ob mutants) or its receptor (db mutants) leads to hyperphagia and inactivity. Exogenous leptin administration in ob mutants leads to reductions in food intake and increases in energy expenditure.83 In humans, defects in leptin signaling (both leptin deficiency and leptin receptor defects) have also been associated with massive, early onset obesity.84,85 However, administra
Essentials of Human Physiology
This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.