Basic Principles Of Retroviral Vector Technology

Oncoretroviral Vectors The Basic Technology Retroviruses are enveloped viruses that contain a diploid positive-strand RNA genome, whose life cycle is characterized by their use of reverse transcriptase to convert the RNA genome to double-stranded DNA, which is then permanently integrated into the chromosomes of the host cell. As noted above, most retroviral vectors in current use are traditionally based on Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV), a simple oncoretrovirus that contains 5'- and...

Vaccinia As A Cancer Vaccine

The experience with vaccinia in the eradication of smallpox led to research into its use as an antitumor vaccine. Vaccinia was engineered to express tumor antigens and serve as a cancer vaccine. The size of the potential transgene that can be put into the vaccinia vector allows for flexibility in engineering, such that immune enhancing genes and antigenetic genes can be recombined into the genome. The immunostimulatory effects and efficient transcriptional machinery of the virus were utilized...

Masato Yamamoto md phd and David T Curiel md phd

The Necessity of Adenovirus Retargeting Adenoviral Infection Basic Strategies for Adenovirus Retargeting Adenoviral Retargeting for Cancer Gene Therapy Problems Associated With Adenoviral Retargeting in the Field of Cancer Gene Therapy and Current Efforts Future Directions Conclusion Acknowledgments Adenovirus (Ad) has been applied for gene therapy in various applications. The current Ad vector system has two critical problems low transduction of the target cancer cells and high transduction of...

Mien Chie Hung PhD and Duen Hwa Yan PhD

This chapter describes preclinical development of therapeutic genes in breast cancer treatment. Beginning from targeting HER-2 neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells by adenovirus E1A, we found E1A expression had profound effects on tumor cells including growth suppression, apoptosis, and sensitization to chemo-drugs and radiation. The mechanisms of the antitumor activities as well as the preliminary results obtained from multiple E1A clinical trials are discussed. Also identified are the...

Applications Of Retroviral Gene Transfer For Cancer Therapy

Ex Vivo Gene Therapy Using Retroviral and Lentiviral Vectors 3.1.1. Retroviral Gene Transfer to Hematopoietic Cells General Considerations The use of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in bone marrow transplantation approaches have convincingly demonstrated the potential of this approach to repopu-late the different hematologic lineages in mice and in humans, and has found application not only in the treatment of hereditary diseases but also in myelo-reconstitution after high-dose chemotherapy...

Antioncogenic Properties Of

The antitumor effects of AAV had been initially reported within a few years of identification of the virus itself when it was identified that infection of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-transformed hamster tumor cells with AAV delayed the appearance of palpable tumors and increased the survival time of the animals (70). Since then, several reports have confirmed the inhibition of viral oncogenesis by a variety of DNA viruses, including bovine papillomavirus-1 (71), human papillomavirus (HPV)-16...