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Fig. 8. Infection of cells by adenoviruses. Adenoviruses enter cells by initial binding of the fiber knob to CAR and subsequent interaction of the penton base with cell surface integrins. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis results in internalization of the virus and its subsequent movement into the nucleus.

Fig. 8. Infection of cells by adenoviruses. Adenoviruses enter cells by initial binding of the fiber knob to CAR and subsequent interaction of the penton base with cell surface integrins. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis results in internalization of the virus and its subsequent movement into the nucleus.

(see Fig. 8) (44,47,48). This interaction results in a conformational change in the fiber that allows the penton base protein, through its tripeptide amino acid sequence (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid [RGD] motif), to bind to a integrins, specifically and on the cell surface. This second interaction (penton base with integrins) results in a pH change (towards acidification) facilitating viral evasion of the endosome (49,50). Once inside the cell, the viral core (containing the viral genome) moves into the nucleus through nuclear pores, and a viral DNA-cell histone complex is formed, initiating selective expression of early gene transcription.

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