Strains of Vaccinia Virus

The widespread use of vaccinia virus in the eradication of smallpox led to the development of multiple strains with various characteristics, pathogenicity, and host range. The New York City Board of Health strain was obtained from England in 1856 and was originally used for smallpox vaccination in the United States (3). The Western Reserve (WR) strain is a laboratory derivative of this strain and is one of the more virulent strains in laboratory animals and nonhuman primates. Another derivative, the Wyeth strain is used clinically for smallpox vaccination. The modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) strain was

Fig. 1. Vaccinia virus replication cycle. A diagram of the infected cell is shown. The major stages of the virus lifecycle are listed. Following late gene expression, previrion forms assemble to form the IMV. The IMV is targeted to the trans-Golgi Network(TGN) and following envelopment, the IEV is formed. IEV's are propelled to the cell surface by the polymerization of actin filaments. Once released, the virus may remain attached to the membrane as a cell associated enveloped virus (CEV) or be released into the medium as an extracellular enveloped virus (EEV). Reprinted with permission from ref. 2.

Fig. 1. Vaccinia virus replication cycle. A diagram of the infected cell is shown. The major stages of the virus lifecycle are listed. Following late gene expression, previrion forms assemble to form the IMV. The IMV is targeted to the trans-Golgi Network(TGN) and following envelopment, the IEV is formed. IEV's are propelled to the cell surface by the polymerization of actin filaments. Once released, the virus may remain attached to the membrane as a cell associated enveloped virus (CEV) or be released into the medium as an extracellular enveloped virus (EEV). Reprinted with permission from ref. 2.

created through multiple rounds of infection in avian cells. This strain is highly attenuated and does not replicate in human or other mammalian cells (19). Numerous other attenuated strains of vaccinia have been produced through deletional mutations.

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