Online Hypnosis Training Course
Maintenance of anaesthesia involves constant vigilance of the patient's state of hypnosis, analgesia and paralysis, as well as attention to the condition of the airway, ventilation and cardiovascular system. Although no absolute monitor of depth of anaesthesia exists, several attempts have been made to provide some indication. One such monitor is bis-pectral index (BIS) monitoring, which is a mathematical interpretation of electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns to give a number between 0 and 100. The lower numbers refer to anaesthetised patients and higher numbers are in awake patients. Anaesthesia (hypnosis) for premedication, induction agents and opioid analgesics, a properly conducted anaesthetic following these principles should produce hypnosis (see below).
Another basic difficulty, which besets all three major branches of the theory of repression alike, lies in the epistemological defects of Freud's so-called fundamental rule of free association, the supposed microscope and X-ray tomograph of the human mind. This rule enjoins the patient to tell the analyst without reservation whatever comes to mind. Thus, it serves as the fundamental method of clinical investigation. We are told that by using this technique to unlock the floodgates of the unconscious, Freud was able to show that neuroses, dreams, and slips are caused by repressed motives. Just as in Breuer's cathartic use of hypnosis, it is a cardinal thesis of Freud's entire psychoanalytic enterprise that his method of free association has a twofold major capability, which is both investigative and therapeutic (1) It can identify the unconscious causes of human thoughts and behavior, both abnormal and normal, and (2) by overcoming resistances and lifting repressions, it can remove the...
Supportive-expressive group therapy and self-hypnosis condition versus a control condition. Self-hypnosis was used to help control pain. After 10 years, participants in the intervention group were found to have lived an average of 18 months longer than participants in the control condition. Several attempts to replicate these findings have been unsuccessful (Goodwin et al, 2001 Kissane et al, 2007 Spiegel et al, 2007).
I find in going through the literature that the psychogalvanic reflex has been elicited by the following varieties of stimuli sensations and perceptions of any sense modality (sight, sounds, taste, etc.), associations (words, thoughts, etc.), mental work or effort, attentive movements or attitudes, imagination and ideas, tickling, painful or nocive stimuli, variations in respiratory movements or rate, suggestion and hypnosis, emotional behavior (fighting, crying, etc.), relating dreams, college examinations, and so forth Forty investigators hold that it is specific to, or a measure of, emotion of the affective qualities ten others state that it is not necessarily of an emotional or affective nature twelve men hold that it is somehow to be identified with conation, volition, or attention, while five hold very definitely that it is nonvoluntary twenty-one authorities state that it goes with one or another of the mental processes eight state that it is the concomitant of all sensation...
The neurological effects of kava are attributed to a group of substituted dihydropyrones called kava lactones (1). The main bioactive constituents include yangonin, desmethoxyyangonin, 11-methoxyyangonin, kavain (kawain), dihydrokavain, methysticin, dihydromethysticin, and 5,6-dehydromethysticin (8). It is believed that the components present in the lipid-soluble kava extract, or kava resin, are responsible for the central nervous system (CNS) activities of kava including sedation, hypnosis, analgesia, and muscle relaxation (9). Aqueous kava extract was not active orally in mice or rats.
Investigative hypnosis has also been used to improve recall of information. In many respects hypnosis can be seen as a more intensive form of cognitive interview in which the respondent is helped to relax and concentrate (Wagstaff, 1984). There are certainly many anecdotal accounts of its effectiveness. However, the possibilities of leading the respondent to offer information that may be suggested by the interviewing hypnotist are considered much greater than for the interviewer in a cognitive interview. Many jurisdictions therefore have very close controls over the ways in which hypnotic interviews can be conducted.
The studies of phobic patients in Table 20.1 show that exposure to video displays of patients receiving dentistry can reduce anxiety under test conditions. That has enabled subjects to accept one invasive dental procedure according to verifiable records in three studies (Bernstein & Kleinknecht, 1982 Harrison, Berggren & Carlsson, 1989 Jerremalm, Jansson & Oest, 1986). The studies that have tested cognitive therapy (De Jongh et al., 1995 Ning & Liddell, 1991) provide no evidence that the patients were more able to accept dental treatment even though improvements in anxiety on standard measures were recorded. Hypnosis, which is popular among dentists, has been examined in very few controlled studies. Moore et al. (1996) compared hypnotherapy plus graded exposure to dentistry, systematic desensitisation, group therapy and a waiting-list control group. The subjects in all treatments showed a greater reduction in anxiety than the control group but half those who received hypnosis failed...
A number of psychological interventions have been tried in asthma including counselling (Bailey et al., 1990), autogenic training (Henry et al., 1993), relaxation and music therapy (Lehrer et al., 1994) and CBT (Kotses, 1995). In addition, education, medication management and hypnosis have been used. Doubt has been cast on the efficacy of education self-management and hypnosis (Gibson, 2002 Hackman, 2000). They found only 12 studies of sufficient quality to include in the review. The interventions used included relaxation, autogenic therapy, biofeedback, hypnosis, CBT and psycho-educational programmes. Many studies combined more than one of these techniques making it even more difficult to come to any conclusions about what might be helpful.
A Practial Guide To Self Hypnosis
Hypnosis has been defined as a state of heightened suggestibility in which the subject is able to uncritically accept ideas for self-improvement and act on them appropriately. When a hypnotist hypnotizes his subject, it is known as hetero-hypnosis. When an individual puts himself into a state of hypnosis, it is known as self-hypnosis.