Products Of Historical Interest

Adrenergic and cholinergic combinations were reported as early as the 1960s.6'7 The first available combination of IOP-lowering agents was a mixture of pilocarpine and epinephrine. This product evolved during the period when these two classes represented available glaucoma medications, and with additive properties in combination.8'9 Many patients were receiving both in separate bottles, and combining them in a single bottle offered dosing convenience. Some...

References

Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, et al. The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. JAMA. 2003 289 2560-2572. 2. Langman MJ, Lancashire RJ, Cheng KK, Stewart PM. Systemic hypertension and glaucoma mechanisms in common and co-occurrence. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005 89 960-963. 3. Phillips CI, Howitt G, Rowlands DJ. Propranolol as ocular hypotensive agent. Br J Ophthalmol. 1967 51 222-226. 4. Cote G, Drance SM. The effect of...

High Iop On Initial Presentation

Patients presenting with extremely elevated IOP (e.g., > 50 mm Hg) usually have symptoms. Unlike the chronically elevated IOP found with primary open-angle glaucoma or some forms of secondary glaucoma, acutely elevated IOP can cause blurry vision, pain, haloes around lights, nausea, vomiting, red eye, and corneal swelling.21 On the other hand, optic nerve or visual field damage is less frequently found with acutely elevated IOP, because the symptoms bring attention to the disorder early on....

Ocular Use Of Steroids

Most of the known effects of the glucocorticoids are mediated by widely distributed glucocorticoid receptors. Glucocorticoid enters a target cell as a free molecule. In the absence of the hormonal ligand, intracellular glucocorticoid receptors bound to stabilizing proteins are incapable of activating transcription. When a molecule of glucocorticoid binds to the receptor, the complex undergoes conformational changes that allow it to dissociate from the stabilizing...

American Academy of Ophthalmology Clinical Education Secretariat Louis B Cantor MD Indiana University School of

Retinal Detachment Principles and Practice, third edition Daniel A. Brinton and Charles P. Wilkinson 2. Electrophysiologic Testing in Disorders of the Retina, Optic Nerve, and Visual Pathway, second edition Gerald Allen Fishman, David G. Birch, Graham E. Holder, and Mitchell G. Brigell 3. Visual Fields Examination and Interpretation, second edition Thomas J. Walsh 4. Glaucoma Surgery Principles and Techniques, second edition Edited by Robert N. Weinreb and Richard P. Mills 5. Fluorescein and...