Primates [Order

Lorisidae Family Arctocebus Genus A. aureus Species A. calabarensis Loris Genus L. tardigradus Species Nycticebus Genus N. coucang Species N. pygmaeus Perodicticus Genus P. potto Species E. elegantulus Species E. pallidus Galago Genus G. alleni Species G. gallarum G. matschiei G. moholi G. senegalensis Galagoides Genus G. demidoff Species G. zanzibaricus Otolemur Genus O. crassicaudatus Species O. garnettii Cheirogaleidae Family Allocebus Genus A. trichotis Species Cheirogaleus Genus C. major...

Feeding ecology and diet

Insects are the mainstay of many insectivores. Others such as solenodons, hedgehogs, tenrecs, and some shrews prefer an animal-based diet that may include snails, reptiles, worms, and ground-nesting birds' eggs. The aquatic species subsist on crustaceans, mollusks, fish, and frogs. Plant matter and even fruits, vegetables, seeds, and nuts are other sources of insectivore nutrition. Many moles and shrews have a very high metabolic rate and a voracious appetite causing some species to eat up to...

Highspeed leaping

Kangaroo locomotion. (Illustration by Marguette Dongvillo) powerful hind limbs, the forelimbs of most macropodids are small and rather weakly developed. In the larger species where there is distinct size dimorphism between males and females, the forelimbs of males show a disproportionate amount of development for the purposes of display and fighting. The fore-limbs of the tree kangaroos are also relatively more developed than in other genera to aid in climbing. As a consequence of the large...

Significance to humans

For the most part, bats interact little with people although many species exploit human structures as roosts or feed in rich patches of food people create. But bat-people interactions are not entirely benign. Bats are commonly associated with two diseases that can afflict humans, histoplasmosis and rabies. Histoplasmosis, a fungus disease of the lungs, can be contracted when people inhale the spores of the fungus Histo-plasma capsulatum. In warmer parts of the world, these spores are often...

Golden horseshoe bat

Rhinonicteris aurantia (Gray, 1845), Northern Territory, Australia. OTHER COMMON NAMES Orange leaf-nosed bat. Head and body length 1.7-2.0 in (45-53 mm) forearm length 1.8-1.9 in (47-50 mm) tail length 0.9-1.1 in (24-28 mm weight 0.28-0.35 oz (8-10 g). The fur is long, silky, and typically bright orange above and paler below, though specimens vary from dark brown to almost white. Characterized by their unique nose leaf the anterior portion is a divided horseshoe and the posterior portion is...

California leafnosed bat

Macrotus californiens Baird, 1858, California, United States. Head and body length 2.1-2.5 in (53-64 mm) tail 1.4-1.6 in (35-41 mm) forearm 1.9-2.1 in (48-54 mm) weight 0.4-0.7 oz (12-20 g) upper body is brown or gray, lower body is brown or buff with a silvery wash. Southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, including Baja California. Arid subtropical lowlands roosts in caves, mines, and abandoned buildings. A relatively sedentary, nonmigratory species that is active year-round at its...

Egyptian slitfaced bat

Geoffroy, 1818, Egypt. Seven subspecies are recognized. A medium-sized bat forearm ranging 1.6-2 in (4.2-5.1 cm) weight 0.2-0.4 oz (7-12 g). Long, fine fur is gray to red. Large ears. Widespread in savanna woodlands of sub-Saharan Africa from Sierra Leone in the west through East Africa and north to the middle east on either side of the Red Sea occur south in Africa to the Cape. Occur in savanna woodlands and more arid areas. BEHAVIOR Roost in hollows, whether in trees,...

Physical characteristics

The typical talpid is a small, tube-shaped mammal with short, silky fur, and a narrow muzzle. The fossorial (burrowing) forms, which make up more than half the species in this family, have large, clawed hands specialized for digging, small or unseen eyes suited to their dark habitat, and fur that lies flat regardless of whether it is pointing backward or forward on the body. The aquatic and the terrestrial, surface-dwelling species lack the exaggerated forefeet, and some aquatic taxa have...

Yellowbellied glider

Petaurus australis Shaw, 1791, Sydney, Australia.Two subspecies. H Petaurus australis H Petaurus breviceps I Dactylopsila trivirgata I Gymnobelideus leadbeateri English Fluffy glider French Grand phalanger volant German Riesenbeutelflughurnchen. Length 2.2-2.5 ft (690-780 mm) weight 15.8-25 oz (450-710 g). Gray-brown silky fur with light underside and black feet. Dark stripe on thigh. Unique compartmental pouch. A continuous range exists along the Australian east coast and several isolated...

Mammals IV

Abercrombie, PhD Wofford College Spartanburg, South Carolina Cleber J. R. Alho, PhD Departamento de Ecologia (retired) Universidade de Bras lia Bras lia, Brazil Universidad de la Rep blica Oriental Anders Angerbj rn, PhD Department of Zoology Stockholm University Stockholm, Sweden William Arthur Atkins Atkins Research and Consulting Normal, Illinois Paul J. J. Bates, PhD Harrison Institute Sevenoaks, Kent United Kingdom Amy-Jane Beer, PhD Origin Natural Science York, United Kingdom...

Mauritian tomb bat

Taphozous mauritianus Geoffroy, 1818, Mauritius. OTHER COMMON NAMES German Mauritius Grabfledermaus. Head and body length 2.9-3.6 in (75-93 mm) forearm 2.3-2.5 in (58-65 mm) weight 0.7-1.3 oz (20-36 g). Dorsal fur brownish gray speckled with white ventral side almost pure white. Both sexes may have a throat pocket. In Nigeria and Mozambique, this pocket is present only in males, whereas it can be found in both sexes in Sudan (although more pronounced in the male sex). In West Africa, males have...

Lesser woolly horseshoe bat

Rhinolophus beddomei Andersen, 1905, Madras, India. Head and body length 2.6-3 in (6.5-7.5 cm) tail 1.5-1.9 in (3.9-4.8 cm) forearm 2.2-2.5 in (5.5-6.4 cm) weight 0.6-0.7 oz (18-19 g). Fur long, woolly and dark, usually black with paler hair tips. Southern and western peninsular India, and Sri Lanka. HABITAT Restricted to forested areas. BEHAVIOR Normally roosts singly, in pairs or threes, in hollow trees, small caves, overhanging ledges, buildings, or tunnels hangs by one foot, with wings...

Kelaarts longclawed shrew

Feroculus feroculus (Kelaart, 1850), central mountains, Sri Lanka, at altitude of 6,000 ft (2,000 m). Initially, this species was identified as a water shrew more recently identified as a separate species (semi-fossorial). French Pachyure aux longues griffes German Kelaarts Langkrallenspitzmaus. Head and body length 4.2-4.7 in (10.6-11.8 cm) tail 2.2-2.9 in (5.6-7.3 cm) 1.2-1.3 oz (35-37 g). Known from only a few specimens. The back is slate black, underside is lighter, dark tail with a few...

Pentailed tree shrew

Ptilocercus lowii Gray, 1848, Sarawak, Malaysia. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Ptilocerque German Federschwanzspitzhornchen. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Head and body length 5 in (13 cm) tail length 4.5 in (11 cm). Body mass 1.5 oz (43 g). Small-bodied. Fur dark gray dorsally and pale gray or buff ventrally. Dark facial stripe extends from the snout to behind the eye on each side. No shoulder stripe present. Short snout upper incisors enlarged. Eyes more forward-facing than in other tree shrews but...

Evolution and systematics

The systematic affinities of the family Noctilionidae were debated for many years. Recent analyses of large molecular and morphological datasets provide strong evidence that these bats are closely allied with the other exclusively neotropical bat families, Mormoopidae and Phyllostomidae, and with the endemic New Zealand family, Mystacinidae, that together form the superfamily Noctilionoidea. Analyses of molecular variation among populations of the two noctilionid species and their close...

Resources

Suthakar-Isaac, and R. Subbaraj. Tent Roosting by the Frugivorous Bat Cynopterus sphinx in Southern India. Current Science 65 (1993) 418. Bradbury, J. W. Lek Mating Behavior in the Hammer-headed Bat. Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie 45 (1977) 225-255. Owen-Ashley, N. T., and D. E. Wilson. Micropteropus pusillus. Mammalian Species 577 (1998) 1-5. Simmons, N. B. The Case for Chiropteran Monophyly. American Museum Novitiates 3103 (1994) 1-54. Tuttle, M. D. Fruit Bats Exonerated....

Desert shrew

Notiosorex crawfordi (Coues, 1877), Texas, United States. Specimens from Tamaulipas, Mexico, were shown to represent a separate species described as Notiosorex villai. Another Mexican subspecies, N. c. evotis, was also elevated to specific status. French Musaraigne du d sert German Graue Wustenspitz-maus. Head and body length 1.9-2.6 in (4.8-6.5 cm) tail 0.9-1.2 in (2.2-3.1 cm) weight 0.1-0.2 oz (3-5 g). Dark gray fur, lighter underneath. Long tail, visible ears. Reddish nose, hairless feet....

Pink fairy armadillo

Common name Scientific name Other common names Northern naked-tailed armadillo Dark brown to almost black with yellow Grasslands and wooded Cabassous centralis French Tatou German Weisskopf-Zweizehenfaultier Spanish Armado de zapilots Chacoan naked-tailed armadillo Cabassous chacoensis Southern naked-tailed armadillo Cabassous unicinctus lateral areas, underparts are yellow-gray. Head is broad, snout is short and wide, ears are well-separated. Head and body length 12-28 in (30-71 cm), tail...