Epo

Red cell progenitor cells

IL, interleukin; GM, granulocyte-monocyte; CSF, colony-stimulating factor; EPO, erythropoietin; NK, natural killer; fibroblast, connective tissue support cell; endothelial cells, lining cells of blood vessels.

IL, interleukin; GM, granulocyte-monocyte; CSF, colony-stimulating factor; EPO, erythropoietin; NK, natural killer; fibroblast, connective tissue support cell; endothelial cells, lining cells of blood vessels.

bone marrow. EPO is secreted on a daily basis in small amounts and functions to balance red cell production.10 If the body becomes anemic and Hgb levels decline, the kidney senses tissue hypoxia and secretes more EPO; consequently, red cell production is accelerated and younger red cells are released prematurely. Normal red cell maturation from the precursor cell the pronormoblast takes 5 days; with accelerated erythropoiesis, the maturation is decreased to 3 to 4 days. Human recombinant erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) is available as a pharmaceutical product and can be used for individuals experiencing renal disease, for individuals who have become anemic as a result of chemotherapy, or for individuals who refuse whole blood products on religious grounds.

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