Revolutionary Guided Juicing Program

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Get Juiced

This book will guide you through the processes of juicing your way to better health. Learn all the savvy tips and tricks to maintain your health and good body for a bright future ahead. This includes tips on diet, exercise, sleeping habits and etc.

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The Healing Power Of Juicing

The Healing Power Of Juicing is a new eBook packed with all the motivation, strategies, techniques, and recipes you need to launch into a brand new, healthy life. Heres what you will discover in The Healing Power of Juicing eBook: Motivation For Juicing. Health Benefits of Juicing. 7 Secrets to a Healthy Life. Superfoods For Powerhouse Health. Powerful Juice Recipes. The Get Healthy Plan. How To Stay Healthy. Which Types of Juicers Are the Best.

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Power Juicing

Power Juicing penned by Mike Griffin is the latest book that reveals to people the truth about juicing for weight loss. After Mike Griffin launched this book, a lot of customers have used it for discovering how to make delicious and healthy juice recipes. Read more...

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A Must Have Guide For Beginning Juicers

Recently, a new breakthrough in juicing was discovered and reported in an amazing new eBook called The Experts Guide To Juicing: The True Secret to a Healthy and Vibrant Lifestyle! Here's what you'll discover in The Experts Guide To Juicing: The True Secret to a Healthy and Vibrant Life!: How to understand the power of home-made juice compared to bottled juice. 3 little known, yet simple ways to take advantage of the power of juice. Secrets from experts that few people ever know about. 3 proven steps to understanding how juice can detoxify and cleanse your body. 2 simple keys (that are right in front of your eyes) to using juice to loose weight. Warning: 3 things you should never do when it comes to juicing. You'll discover in just a few short minutes how to gain energy with juice. 6 time tested and proven strategies to lower your blood pressure with the power of juice. When to seek professional help when it comes to fasting with juice. 7 everyday but often overlooked tips and tricks for using juice to alleviate diabetes. An economical way to find the perfect juicer for your needs. How often to fast using juice. How to use the power of juice to alleviate asthma. Read more...

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Eu Harmonized Laws A Horizontal Harmonized Laws

There are only two vertical harmonized directives, those on fruit juices and on wines, in which the use of certain enzymes is expressly provided for. The Fruit Juice Directive (5) states that only pectolytic, proteolytic, and amylolytic enzymes may be used in fruit juices. The Wine Regulation (6) permits the use of pectolytic enzymes and of -glucanase from the microorganism Trichoderma harzianum only. No other enzymes can be used unless specific authorization, resulting in an amendment of the law, is given.

The role of dairy products in preventing dental caries

A disturbing trend is occurring in global beverage consumption. Many consumers have stopped drinking milk as a predominant beverage to consuming soft drinks and other beverages highly sweetened with sucrose and other sweeteners. Sadly, the trend is occurring in young children as well as adults. Data analyzed from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I (NHANES) found caries incidence was positively associated with elevated consumption of soft drinks in 9 to 29 year olds (Ismail et al., 1984). Marshall et al. (2003) reported an increased incidence rate for dental caries in young children (4 to 7 years old) when they consumed higher than median intakes of soft drinks, powdered beverages (sweetened with sugar), and to some extent fruit juice during their 'window of infectivity' (2 to 5 years old). They also showed this age group to have inadequate intakes of other nutrients

Vitamins and nutraceuticals

The term carotenoids summarizes a class of structurally related compounds, which are mainly found in plants, algae, and several lower organisms, bacteria, and fungi. At present, more than 600 different carotenoids have been identified (72). Saffron, pepper, leaves, and red palm oil possessing carotenoids as their main color components, have been exploited as food colors for several centuries. The color of carotenoids, together with beneficial properties such as vitamin A precursor and antioxidant activity, has led to their wide application in the food industry. They have been used for pigmentation of margarine, butter, fruit juices and

Phenolic antioxidants

Remains after the juice is extracted from the fruits. Fermentation of fruit juices, such as grape juice to wine, has already been shown to improve nutritive and health promoting activities (210-212). Solid-state bioprocessing done on the pulps using food grade fungi can result in enrichment of the pulps with phenolic antioxidants and functionally important phenolic phytochemicals, and also improve phytochemical profile consistency.

Wine and Juice Production

Even though the amount of -glucans in grapes and fruits is significantly lower than in cereals, cellulases have also found applications in the production of wines and fruit juices where they are used in combination with pectinases and hemicellulases. In wine making, the enzymes are generally used for better skin maceration, improved color extraction, easier must clarification and filtration, and increased wine quality and stability (85). The use of -glucosidases for aroma development from naturally present glucosylated precursors has also been described (86). Macerating enzyme cocktails with cellulases are also used in fruit juice production. In addition, the use of these enzymes offers advantages in the treatment of by products of the fruit industry by improving the extraction yield and the overall process efficiency. Cellulases and hemicel-lulases can be used for the isolation of pectin from citrus fruits to break down the cell walls, increasing the pectin yield. Cellulases can be...

Feeding ecology and diet

New World opossums are generalist omnivores. Food items include insects, insect larvae, worms and other invertebrates, bird's eggs and nestlings, fruit, carrion, reptiles, amphibians, birds, and small mammals. Almost all species are omnivorous with varying degrees of frugivorous or carnivorous tendencies. Species in the genera Caluromys and Caluromysiops are considered primarily frugivorous, although they do include animal matter in their diet. Smaller species such as those in the genera Marmosa, Marmosops, Gracilinanus, etc., tend to be primarily insectivorous with some eggs, fruit, and meat also included. Mouse opossums kept in captivity will not hesitate to attack large moths or grasshoppers, grasping them with their hands and quickly administering killing bites all over the body of the insect. They normally discard the wings and legs, and other chitinous, undigestible pieces. Caterpillars are rapidly rolled and rubbed against substrates to remove stinging hairs. Fruit can be...

Application Of Esterases A Pectin Methylesterases

Pectin enzymes find a wide application in fruit and vegetable juice manufacturing, like fruit juice clarification, enzymic pulp treatment for juice extraction, liquefaction, and maceration (19). In most of these applications pectic enzymes are used for the complex degradation of pectin. Since these juices are generally acidic, the depolymerization of the pectin is accomplished by polygalacturonases which are generally specific for low-methylated polygalacturonic acid. To convert the pectin into a PG-accessible substrate, the action of PME is required. For maceration of fruits and vegetables, complete pectin degradation is not desired. Only pectin in the middle lamella should be degraded, which can be accomplished by either PG or PL action alone. Therefore, endogenous pectin methy-lesterase has to be inactivated.

Applications In The Food Industry

Many processes in the food industry aim at a complete degradation of the plant cell wall (the so-called liquefaction process). For instance, in fruit juice manufacturing enzyme preparations are applied to increase juice yield. Also the recovery of important metabolites from plant material can be facilitated by using mixtures of cell wall-degrading enzymes. In many cases, xyloglucanases are an important component of these cocktails. In apple cell wall degradation, a Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase with xyloglucanase activity works particularly well with pectinases (55). The ratio of various endoglucanases in commercial enzyme preparations also deserves attention. It is known for quite some time that cellulose is most efficiently degraded by a mixture of glucanases endoglucanase and cello-biohydrolase (CBH). The endoglucanase produces new chain termini for the CBH to work on. It is less known that efficient degradation of cell wall-embedded cellulose (i.e., cellulose which is coated...

Use Of Glycosidases For Aroma Enrichment

The use of glycosidases to release flavor compounds from glycosidic precursors, was initially examined in wines. Two major reasons for this are (i) important flavor compounds in wines of Vitis vinifera cultivars are accumulated in grapes as flavorless glycoconju-gates, and especially (ii) the glucose inhibition of ft-glucosidase in available enzyme preparations, limits the use of glycosidases to media, like wine, containing trace levels of glucose ( 1 g L). Nevertheless, because of the occurrence of flavor glycoconjugates in several fruits, enzyme applications have been found for fruit juices. The concentration of linalool, and linalool oxides, and some polyols often increased to a lesser extent because of the low activity of fungal -glucosidase toward the relevant glycoconjugates. However, mono- and diglycosides of these tertiary alcohols are more prone to acidic hydrolysis in fruit juice than those of primary alcohols (35).

USE OF bGlucosidases In Food Processing And Quality Enhancement

The importance of -glycosidases to food quality and processing is ably reviewed and discussed by Giinata (see Chapter 21) with emphasis on flavor enhancement in fruit juices and various beverages derived from them. Therefore, the reader is referred to Chapter 21 for more information on this aspect. There are several hundred different y8-glucosidic flavor precursors identified from plants whose aglycones are products of mevalonate or shikimate pathways. Obviously, there are y8-glucosidases in source plant tissues that hydro-lyze these flavor precursors. Thus, in each case there is need for isolating and characterizing the specific enzyme that hydrolyzes a y8-glucoside whose aglycone

Endogenous And Exogenous Pectic Enzymes In Fruit And Vegetable Processing

As processing aids, pectic enzymes have predominantly found applications in the fruit juice industry. Traditional processes to manufacture fruit juices in essence consist of mechanical destruction of cells by grinding of intact tissues into a semifluid system in which cells and cell wall fragments are suspended in cell liquid. From this pulp a crude juice can be obtained by mechanical separation methods e.g., pressing, sieving, or centrifugation. Clear juices can be obtained from the crude juice by additional clarification treatments cloudy or pulpy juices by adjustment of the amount of fineness of the pulp particles through mechanical treatments in which large and insoluble particles are removed. Clarification is obtained through reduction of the viscosity of the cloudy and pectin-rich crude juice by treatment with enzymes, which causes coagulation and precipitation of the cloud particles. The viscosity reduction also allows the production of fruit juice concentrates which, for...

Foodprocessing Properties Of Glycosidases

This section will examine the properties of enzymes, focusing on the specific conditions encountered in the processing of fruit juice and derived beverages. In particular, three important parameters influencing flavor release will be discussed the effect of pH aglycone and sugar specificity of glycosidases and inhibition of activity by sugar and sugar analogues. A summary of the properties of -glucosidase from some plants and microorganisms is given in Table 2. The optimum pH activity of plant -glucosidase (55, 59) and endoglycosidase (51) is similar (5.0-6.0) to that of intracellular yeast -glucosidase (63, 87, 93, 105). This value is generally lower (4.0-5.0) for extracellular yeast (63, 92, 93) and Aspergillus enzymes (10, 61, 106). The optimum pH of an extracellular endo- -glucosi-dase from A. niger was found to be unusually low (3.4) (100). Most -glucosidases exhibit only 5-15 of their maximum activity in the pH range of fruit juices (2.83.8). A. niger a-arabinofuranosidase (62,...

Potential Adverse Effects Of Enzyme Preparations

Certain side activities of fungal enzyme preparations can be detrimental to fruit juice and wine quality owing to the formation of off-flavors and the decolor-ization. A large number of pectinase and hemicellulase preparations derived from A. niger used in fruit juice processing exhibit an cinnamate esterase as side activity which leads to the enrichment of the medium in free caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids (Fig. 10) (170173). Free p-coumaric and ferulic acids can be converted to volatile high-flavorant p-vinylphenols, 4-vinylphenol, and 4-vinylguaiacol, respectively, by either nonenzymatic thermal (174) or enzymatic (yeast and bacteria) decarboxylations (175-179) (Fig. 10). These vinylphenols possess low detection thresholds ( 100 ppb in water) (174, 179) and spicy and medicinal odors, and they contribute positively only at low levels to the flavor of food products (180182). Accordingly, the increase in the concentration of hydroxycinnamic acids precursors of these volatiles...

Cranberry synergies with functional phytochemicals and other fruit extracts

Phenolic antioxidant and a-amylase inhibition activity of cranberry, wild blueberry and grape seed extracts and their synergistic mixtures were investigated in a recent study to develop an additional strategy to manage type II diabetes (227). The results indicated that all the extracts had a-amylase inhibition activity which correlated to the presence of specific phenolic phytochemicals such as chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, and rosmarinic acid, suggesting a possible structure related inhibition of a-amylase. Among the fruit juice powders the cranberry powder had the highest a-amylase inhibition activity. A mixture containing 75 cranberry, 15 blueberry and 10 grape showed a synergistic mode of action and was the most optimal mixture to control a-amylase activity. Consumption of blends of fruit juices with biologically active biphenyls or other fruit as well as herb extracts can impart unique functional attributes and could be a more effective strategy in developing diet based...

Conclusion And Future Prospects

Major progress has been made during the past two decades in our understanding of the chemical composition of glycoconjugated flavor compounds in fruits and the biochemical characterization of glycosidases involved in flavor release. The utilization of exogenous glycosidases for aroma enrichment in fruit juices and particularly in wine processing has been clearly demonstrated. Several approaches, through genetic engineering techniques, will doubtless be used in the near future to overcome, by using recently discovered glycosidases, the limitations (glucose inhibition, substrate specificity, pH effect) on the exploitation of the glycosylated aroma source in the processing of fruit juices and derived beverages as well as other plant-derived products. The newly identified enzymes, such as endogly-cosidase, possessing a broad sugar specificity and low inhibition constant for glucose, together with highly glucose-tolerant -glucosidases from Aspergillus sp. and yeasts (Candida and...

Structure And Occurrence Of Glycoconjugated Flavor Compounds

The amount of glycosidically bound volatiles is typically two to eight times greater than that of their free counterparts (2, 3, 19). Moreover, most norisoprenoids in fruit, some of which are precursors of very potent flavor compounds, have been detected mainly in glycosidic forms. This, together with the low aroma threshold and sensory properties of aglycones, makes the glycosidic compounds an important potential source of flavor volatiles during fruit juice processing. The glycosidically bound volatiles can be released by either acid or enzyme hydrolysis (1, 2, 36). Slow acid hydrolysis takes place at fruit juice pH (35) and can be accelerated by thermal treatment (36-38). This treatment, however, can reduce the sensory quality of the products (38). In contrast, polyhydroxylated monoterpenes (poly-ols) and the majority of norisoprenoids are odorless, but can generate potent aroma compounds due to their reactivity in the acidic medium (pH 2.8-3.8) of fruit...

Flavonoid intake data in epidemiological studies

The first and also one of the best attempts to generate precise flavonoid intake data was the Zutphen Elderly Study investigating the association between flavonoid intakes and risk of coronary heart diseases (Hertog et al., 1993a). This study was based on a thorough chemical analysis of the content of quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, apigenin and luteolin in 28 vegetables and 9 fruits, tea infusions, wines, and fruit juices commonly consumed in the Netherlands (Hertog et al., 1992, 1993a). However, since the study included only these five dietary flavonoids, it covered only a fraction of the total amount of flavonoids found in our diet (see Table 9.1). The authors found that the total average intake of the flavonoids determined was 23 mg day, with the flavonol quercetin as the most important dietary flavonoid (mean intake 16 mg day) and with tea as the major flavonoid source (48 per cent of total intake), followed by onions (29 per cent), and apples (7 per cent). It is seen from...


In contrast, equimolar addition of ascorbic acid (5 M) to European red grape juice samples significantly increased the antioxidant activities of the red grape juices on human LDL oxidation in vitro (Fig. 3.1).50 The phenolic profile of Concord grape juice is dominated by anthocyanins, levels range from about 300-450 mgL-1,49 where the dominant compound, which is also the major contributor to the dark, purple-bluish colour, is delphinidin-O-3-monoglucoside. In the ORAC antioxidant assay employing b-phycoerythrin as the oxidising substrate, Concord grape juice exerted the highest antioxidant activity among commercial fruit juices followed by grapefruit, tomato, orange and apple juice.52 Phenolic extracts from red grape pomace that remained after red wine production and isolated catechins and procyanidins extracted from grape seeds are all effective inhibitors of human LDL oxidation in vitro.26,33 Grape seed procyanidins also act as free radical oxygen scavengers in aqueous in vitro...


Separated eight organic acids from tomato juice. Malic acid was found to be the second major organic acid in fresh juice whereas pyrrolidone carboxylic acid was found to be the second major organic acid in the processed juice. Processing of tomato juice results in an increase in total acid. It was found that acetic acid is increased by 32.1 apparently owing to oxidation of aldehydes and alcohols during processing and deamination of amino acids, such as the breakdown of alanine via pyruvic acid. An increase in citric and malic acids after processing was also noted. Crean12 indicated that sugars can decompose on heating in the presence of acids to give acetic, lactic, fumaric and glycolic acids.

Glucose Oxidase

Traces of oxygen in wines and fruit juices cause discoloration and or oxidation of ascorbic acid. Chemical reducing agents may be used to scavenge oxygen, but enzymatic treatment with GO may be preferred. The GO system has been proposed as an antioxidant for high-fat products, such as mayonnaise, butter, and whole milk powder, but it does not appear to be used commercially for this purpose, probably because of cost vis-a-vis chemical antioxidants (if permitted) and the relative effectiveness of inert gas flushing of canned milk powder.

The HACCP study

A critical control point (CCP) is 'A step at which control can be applied and is essential to prevent or eliminate a food safetyhazardorreduceittoanaccept-able level' (CCFH, 1997). Preventive measures are applied at CCPs. For every hazard identified in the hazard analysis stage(Stage6)eachstepintheprocess must be assessed to determine if the step constitutesaCCP.Experienceandjudge-ment can be used to decide whether a process step is a CCP, but reference is often made to the CCP decision tree (Fig. 6.2). Answering each of the four questions in the CCP decision tree provides an invaluable aid to the identification and clarification of CCPs. For instance, the moisture in fruit is not a hazard, as moisture represents no harm to consumers. The presence of moisture can allow mould growth and the development of mycotoxins which are potentially hazardous, for example patulin resulting from the growth of Aspergillus clavatus, sometimes found in apple juice. Selecting good quality apples, which...

Antagonist Selection

Of stone fruits caused by M. fructigena (Pusey and Wilson 1984). Subsequent works focused on screening natural microflora from the aerial surfaces of apple and pear trees for antagonistic activity against decays caused by P. expansum and B. cinerea (Janisiewicz 1987). This resulted in the isolation of many bacteria and yeasts that were effective in controlling fruit decays caused by these pathogens. Isolation from the fruit surfaces has become a standard practice and is the most efficient source of antagonists against postharvest fruit pathogens of temperate, subtropical, and tropical fruits (Adikaram and Karunaratne 1998 Arras 1993 Chalutz et al. 1988 Chand-Goyal and Spotts 1996 Droby et al. 1999 Guinebretiere et al. 2000 Huang et al. 1992 Kanapathipillai and bte Jantan 1985 Lima et al. 1998 Qing and Shiping 2000 Teixido et al. 1998a Testoni et al. 1993 Zahavi et al. 2000). A variety of enrichment procedures, employing either fruit juice or tissue, have been used to isolate...


Polygalacturonases have found widespread application in many industrial processes. The enzymes applied are mostly obtained from the filamentous fungi of the genus Aspergillus. These preparations generally contain a whole range of cell wall-degrading and -modifying enzymes and are predominantly applied in the fruit juice industry. Together with pectin methylester-ase, endopolygalacturonases are essential in most of these applications e.g., clarification of fruit juices, enzymatic juice extraction, liquefaction of plant tissues (Chap. 67). pectin methylesterase activity are used successfully for the production of pulpy nectars. These comminuted fruit juices are viscous, pulpy drinks and are usually prepared by a mechanical-thermal dispersion process. However, products prepared with enzymes are superior in cloud stability and smooth consistency and have higher contents of soluble solids and pigments. These suspensions of loose cells from fruit and vegetable tissue are obtained by...


Arabinases and galactanases are generally present in industrial enzyme preparations applied in the fruit industry. Fruit juices prepared with enzyme preparations which are short in arabinan-degrading enzymes are liable to cloud formation due to precipitation of polymeric linearized arabinan molecules. Enrichment of the preparations with arabinan-degrading enzymes will solve this problem. Depolymerization of arabinan and galactan type I and II in fruit juices with enzymes facilitates ultrafiltration processes by preventing mem-


Mainly applied in fruit juice manufacturing, in particular when the juice is made by the so-called liquefaction process (33). In this process, fruit cell walls are extensively degraded by a mixture of pectinases, hemicellulases, and cellulases. Eventually, the cells cannot withstand the osmotic pressure anymore, and collapse. The cell content (juice) is thus released without pressing, and can be obtained by centrifugation. A final clarification step is done by ultrafiltration. Besides enormous economical benefits (juice yields up to 100 ), this process has also introduced some new technological problems, which are mainly due to the fact that more soluble cell wall fragments are released into the juice. A serious problem in the liquefaction process is the membrane fouling during the final clarification step. In apple juice manufacturing, polymeric cell wall material accumulates at the membrane, and consequently the flux through the membrane is reduced.

Removal of Oxygen

During storage of food, oxygen can have a detrimental effect on quality. As an example, oxidation of unsatu-rated fatty acids can lead to rancidity of vegetable oils. Oxidation of colored components will change the color of beverages or wine. In addition, oxygen influences the taste of beer in a negative way during storage. The majority of foods contain certain quantitites of glucose. In closed systems, the quantity of oxygen to be removed, in order to prevent oxidation, is generally rather low. Therefore GOX can be used to remove oxygen. If necessary a small quantity of glucose is added. An important aspect is the stability of the enzyme under application conditions. Fruit juices and wine have a very low pH of 2.5-3, conditions in which the enzyme is neither active nor stable. However, the high glucose concentrations in fruit juices appear to have a stabilizing effect on the enzyme. A large number of publications describe the positive effect on quality of adding GOX to food. A good...