Cyclical Ketogenic Diets Review

The 3-Week Ketogenic Diet

The 3-week ketogenic diet is tested and proven to be a new diet system that not only will guarantee you are losing weight, but it also gives an assurance of you losing excess body fat in the shortest time of just twenty-one days. After the first week of joining the 3-week ketogenic diet, most people notice some changes in their bodies like joint relief, and their bodies begin to be light and more energy in their bodies.The 3-week ketogenic diet requires food supplements that are readily available locally, and at friendly prices, his makes their product to have a better competitive edge as compared to other products. The 3-week ketogenic diet does not limit any users as anybody can join the program regardless of their age or their ethnicities. A diet program guide is provided by Nick to help all the users and when they follow the guidelines strictly, after three weeks weight loss is achieved. Read more here...

The 3Week Ketogenic Diet Summary

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Carbohydrates and Lipids

Carbohydrates are a class of organic molecules that includes monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. All of these molecules are based on a characteristic ratio of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Lipids constitute a category of diverse organic molecules that share the physical property of being nonpolar, and thus insoluble in water Carbohydrates and lipids are similar in many ways. Both groups of molecules consist primarily of the atoms carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and both serve as major sources of energy in the body (accounting for most of the calories consumed in food). Carbohydrates and lipids differ, however, in some important aspects of their chemical structures and physical properties. Such differences significantly affect the functions of these molecules in the body.

Currently Available Prebiotic Carbohydrates

Evidence that some dietary fibers, such as resistant starches (66-72), arabinoxylan (73,74) and plant gums (75) have prebiotic potential is accumulating, but to date remains limited largely to in vitro and animal studies. These large carbohydrates may have some advantages in the intestinal tract over rapidly fermented oligosaccharides. They minimize rapid gas formation and osmotic effects in the gut, which can lead to intestinal discomfort, flatulence and diarrhea at high doses of NDOs (typically above 15-20 g per day). Additionally, they persist as substrates for saccharolytic fermentation more distally in the colon where carbohydrate limitation is believed to promote toxigenic microbial reactions leading to an increased risk of colorectal cancer (76-79). The molecular structure of the prebiotic can be expected to determine its physiological effects as well as which microbial species are able to utilize it as a carbon and energy source in the bowel. However, it appears that despite...

Blurring the Distinctions Between Prebiotics Dietary Fibers and Other Fermentable Dietary Carbohydrates in the Colon

The greatest volume of research and evidence for prebiotic effects has been accrued for fructo-oligosaccharides and inulin, but there is accumulating evidence of prebiotic actions by a number of non-digestible carbohydrates. Lactulose and galacto-oligosaccharides have strong claims to be classified as prebiotics, while there is promising evidence for prebiotic activity by isomalto-, xylo-, and soybean-oligosaccharides. There is growing interest in the impact of dietary fibers on the composition as well as the activity of the intestinal microbiota, and resistant starches and arabinoxylans in particular warrant further study for bifidogenic and other prebiotic effects.

Assays to Identify a Sweet Pill in a Library of Carbohydrates Mark E Beauharnois Sriram Neelamegham and Khushi L Matta

Soluble oligosaccharides and glycoproteins can inhibit leukocyte adhesion during a range of vascular ailments including inflammation, thrombosis, and cancer metastasis. The design of such molecules in many cases is based on the structure of naturally occurring selectin ligands. In this case, synthetic selectin-ligand mimetics act as competitive inhibitors of cell adhesion. In an alternate approach, cell-permeable, small-molecule oligosaccharides have been shown to alter the metabolic pathways that lead to the biosynthesis of functional selectin-ligands. The addition of such molecules results in glycoproteins that are defective in their ability to bind selectins. Quantitative in vitro testing of the efficacy of the above inhibition strategies ideally requires the application of assays that mimic the in vivo physiological milieu in terms of the valency of selectin and selectin-ligands, the physiological fluid-flow conditions, and the use of blood cells. Assays that are performed in...

Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates Lipids and Proteins

The caloric (energy) value of food is derived mainly from its content of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. In the average American diet, carbohydrates account for approximately 50 of the total calories, protein accounts for 11 to 14 , and lipids make up the balance. These food molecules consist primarily of long combinations of subunits (monomers) that must be digested by hydrolysis reactions into free monomers before absorption can occur. The characteristics of the major digestive enzymes are summarized in table 18.7.

Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates

Most carbohydrates are ingested as starch, which is a long poly-saccharide of glucose in the form of straight chains with occasional branchings. The most commonly ingested sugars are sucrose (table sugar, a disaccharide consisting of glucose and fructose) and lactose (milk sugar, a disaccharide consisting of glucose and galactose). The digestion of starch begins in the mouth with the action of salivary amylase. This enzyme cleaves some of the bonds between adjacent glucose molecules, but most people don't chew their food long enough for sufficient digestion to occur in the mouth. The digestive action of salivary amylase stops some time after the swallowed bolus enters the stomach because this enzyme is inactivated at the low pH of gastric juice.

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates22'23 are the body's main energy source 50-55 per cent of the daily caloric intake should be provided by them. It is important that people with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes consume the right amount of carbohydrates, as they are the primary energy source for the central nervous system which depends on blood glucose. Carbohydrates also have the role of 'protein sparer', preventing the use of proteins for energy purposes, allowing them to perform their real role in tissue building and as metabolic primers for fat metabolism. The amount of carbohydrates in the diet regulates the levels of the intermediate products of fat metabolism, ketones. If the amount of carbohydrates is too low or unavailable, fat is oxidized for energy purposes with an increase of ketones Diet and diabetes prevention and control 131 Table 7.3 Classification of major dietary carbohydrates From a biochemical point of view, carbohydrates are divided into three groups sugars, oligosaccharides and...

The Period From 1890 TO 1940 A Growing Interest

A few years after Fischer's investigations, Eduard Buchner published a series of papers (23, 24) which signaled a breakthrough in fermentation and enzymol-ogy. The experiments began in 1893 (24c). In his first paper on alcoholic fermentation without yeast cells (23) he stated, in a remarkably short and precise manner, that a separation of the (alcoholic) fermentation from the living yeast cells was not successful up to now'' in the following year (24) he described a process that solved that task. He gave the experimental details for the preparation of a cell-free press juice from yeast cells with disruption, filtration under high pressure, and further filtration. He then described the formation of carbon dioxide from carbohydrates (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and maltose). No fermentation was observed with lactose or mannitol. No microscopic organisms were present. Chloroform, an antiseptic inhibiting microbial growth, did not inhibit the fermentation'' (the enzymatic reaction). At...

Six Groups of Enzymes

Hydrolases are enzymes in which water (H2O) is the second substrate. Water participates in the breakage of covalent bonds for example, peptide bonds in proteins, glycosidic bonds in carbohydrates, ester bonds in lipids, and phosphodiester bonds (and others) in nucleic acids. The systematic name is formed as substrate hydrolase.'' The elements (H and OH) appear in the products of the reaction as shown in Eq. (4)

Feeding ecology and diet

Primate species exhibit a wide range of diets, although most of them include at least some fruits in their food intake. If there is a typical dietary category for primates generally, it is surely fruit consumption, as this is found from the smallest to the largest species. Although most primates eat at least some fruits, primates can be classified into three main dietary categories representing at least 50 of food intake (1) insectivores, feeding mainly on arthropods (e.g., tarsiers) (2) frugivores, feeding mainly on fruits (e.g., most forest-living monkeys) (3) folivores, feeding mainly on leaves (e.g., leaf-monkeys). There is a general trend among primates for the diet to shift progressively from insectivory through frugivory to folivory as body size increases. This is understandable because small-bodied mammals have relatively high-energy requirements per unit body weight and must eat foods with a rich, easily available energy content. Large-bodied mammals have relatively low...

Coupling Via Glycosyl Oxophosphonium Intermediates

Mukaiyama and coworkers have developed an alternate method for the generation of glycosyl oxophosphonium intermediates. This method is based on Hen-drickson's earlier work concerning the development of phosphonium anhydride dehydrating reagents, prepared by the reaction of triphenylphosphine oxide (2 equiv) and triflic anhydride (1 equiv) 38 . With the reagent combination of tributyl phos-phine oxide (2 equiv) and triflic anhydride (1 equiv), Mukaiyama reported that the resulting diphosphonium salt 41 (Scheme 10) 39 efficiently converted the hemiacetal functionality of 1-hydroxy carbohydrates to the anomeric oxophosphonium species 42, an effective glycosylating agent. In the presence of i-Pr2NEt as an acid scavenger, glycosylation of a number of simple alcohols, O-TMS-protected alcohol acceptors, and even azide acceptors, can be effected with 2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl-d-fura-nose to afford the product glycosides (e.g., 43-45).

The use of functional foods to meet dietary guidelines

Replacement of saturated or trans fat in the diet by carbohydrates or other types of fat reduces the risk of coronary heart disease.11'12 Margarines were rich sources of trans fat until about a decade ago, but food manufacturers have markedly reduced the trans fat content since reports on adverse health effects.

Diseasespecific diets

Specifically formulated disease-specific diets have been developed for patients with disorders such as encephalop-athy associated with chronic liver disease, and respiratory failure. Malnourished patients with cirrhosis who present with encephalopathy, or who have a previous history of episodes of encephalopathy, present a difficult problem of nutritional management. Branched-chain amino acid-enriched diets have been advocated to normalize plasma amino acid profiles with the aim of improving nutritional state and preventing worsening of encephalopathy. Patients with respiratory failure on ventilators are adversely affected by diets with high carbohydrate loads which increase CO2 production. Diets with a higher fat energy component allow earlier weaning from artificial ventilator support as a result of decreased CO2 production and reduced respiratory quotient.

Atoms Ions and Chemical Bonds

The structures and physiological processes of the body are based, to a large degree, on the properties and interactions of atoms, ions, and molecules. Water is the major constituent of the body and accounts for 65 to 75 of the total weight of an average adult. Of this amount, two-thirds is contained within the body cells, or in the intracellular compartment the remainder is contained in the extracellular compartment, a term that refers to the blood and tissue fluids. Dissolved in this water are many organic molecules (carbon-containing molecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids), as well as inorganic molecules and ions (atoms with a net charge). Before describing the structure and function of organic molecules within the body, it would be useful to consider some basic chemical concepts, terminology, and symbols.

The interaction of dendritic cells and BTcells

Only a few DC and small amounts of antigen are sufficient to induce a potent antigen-specific T-cell response, thus demonstrating the immunostimulatory potency of DC. The expression of adhesion molecules and lectins, such as DC-SIGN, support the aggregation of DC and T-cells and promote the engagement of the T-cell receptor (TCR). DC-SIGN is a type C lectin that has also been shown to bind to lenti-viruses, such as SIV and HIV-1 and -2 by interaction of gp120 with carbohydrates (Geijtenbeek 2000). Mycobacteria and Dengue virus may also bind to DC-SIGN. In vivo, immunohistochemical studies show expression of DC-SIGN on submucosal and intradermal DC, suggesting an implication of DC-SIGN in vertical and mucosal transmission of HIV. The expression of DC-SIGN was shown to enhance the transmission of HIV to T cells and allows utilization of coreceptors if their expression is limited. Thus DC-SIGN may be a mechanism whereby HIV-1 is taken up by DC in the mucosal tissues. It is then...

OLinked Glycosylation

O-linked glycosylation is also involved in the formation of proteoglycans, a class of carbohydrate that is of special interest to the virologist. These carbohydrates consist of a core structure, to which one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains are attached. GAG chains are unbranched, high molecular weight polysaccharides, that consist of a backbone of repeating disaccharide units, consisting of an aminosugar and uronic acid. Heparan sulphate (HS) is an example of one of these structures, and several viruses are able to bind to HS during the initial stages of cell attachment. HS consists of repeating units of A-acetyl-glucosamine and glucuroic acid. The GAG chain is initiated by the addition of glucuronic acid to a tetrasaccharide linker. This structure is attached to a serine (that is immediately distal to a glycine residue) within the polypeptide backbone, a process that occurs via O-linked glycosylation. This unit is extended by the addition of the glucuroic acid and A-acetyl...

Household Food Inventories

Household food inventories are ecological measures of diet. They cannot give information on an individual or even a family's absolute intake, but they provide a snapshot of eating behaviors or even food culture. For example, households that have many high-fat, nutrient-poor foods (i.e., potato chips, candies, sweets, and other prepared snacks) and few fruits and vegetables may be more likely to have overall high-fat diets or be at risk for obesity. A common approach for family-level weight management programs is for the nutritionist to conduct a food inventory of the pantry and advise the family to discard items with excess energy and poor nutritional value. This point is illustrated in one study reporting that the presence (in the house) of 15 high-fat foods was found to correlate with household members' individual dietary fat intake at 0.42 (p < 0.001) (Patterson et al, 1997). Individuals with < 4 high-fat foods in their house had a mean of 32 energy from fat compared to 37 for...

Symbiosis and modern biology

The recognition of symbiotic relationships has had a revolutionary impact on modern biological thought. The idea that mitochondria and chloroplasts are transformed by symbiotic bacteria provides a common thread to the biological world and raises hope of finding other symbiotic wonders among life's diversity. Plants and animals have acquired new metabolic capabilities through symbioses with bacteria and fungi. Mammalian herbivores and termites digest cellulose with the help of microbial symbionts. The luminescent bacteria contained in the specialized light organs of some fishes and squids produce marine bioluminescence. Diverse animal life around deep-sea vents is based on symbiosis with bacteria that oxidize hydrogen sulfide and chemosynthetically fix carbon dioxide into carbohydrates. Associations between fungi and algae have resulted in unique morphological structures called lichens. Early land plants formed associations with mycorrhizal fungi, which greatly facilitated their...

Monosaccharides Disaccharides and Polysaccharides

Carbohydrates include simple sugars, or monosaccharides, and longer molecules that contain a number of monosaccharides joined together. The suffix -ose denotes a sugar molecule the term hexose, for example, refers to a six-carbon monosaccharide with the formula C6Hi2O6. This formula is adequate for some purposes, but it does not distinguish between related hexose sugars, which are structural isomers of each other. The structural

Dairy consumption energy intake and body weight

The regulation of the synthesis and secretion of gut hormones is complex, varies across species, and depends on both the macronutrient composition of the diet and other neuroendocrine factors. For example, fat is the major stimulant of CCK release in humans, probably due to the role of CCK in bile acid secretion (Liddle et al., 1985), whereas protein is its most potent stimulant in rats (Liddle et al., 1986). Furthermore, carbohydrates and fats are more powerful GLP-1 secretagogues than protein (Brubaker and Anini, 2003), although protein might enhance the GLP-1 secreting actions of the other macronutrients (Blom et al., 2006 Lejeune et al., 2006). concentrations of ketones, such as those observed during starvation or high fat, low carbohydrate diets, are associated with suppression of hunger and appetite (Havel et al., 1999 Freedman et al., 2001). In the fed state, lactate concentrations are increased in proportion to the carbohydrate content of the meal and thus could contribute to...

Role Of The Gastrointestinal Microbiota In Humans

Traditionally, the colon has been considered to largely be the human sewage system which, as well as storing and removing waste material from the GI tract, was capable of recycling water (i.e., absorption). However, we now recognize that the GI tract is one of the most metabolically and immunologically active organs of the human body. Indeed, the primary function of the microbiota is generally considered to be salvage of energy via fermentation of carbohydrates, such as indigestible dietary residues (plant cell walls, non-digestible fibers and oligosaccharides), mucin side-chains and sloughed-off epithelial cells (5,6,8,13,17). It has been estimated that between 20 and 60 grams of carbohydrate are available in the colon of healthy human adults per day, as well as 5-20 grams of protein. In addition to salvaging energy, principally through production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and their subsequent absorption and use by the host, microbial fermentation produces gases (principally...

Role Of Carbohydrate In Vaccine Strategies To

Targeting carbohydrates which are not structurally encoded by the viral genome as targets for neutralizing antibodies could present a new possibility for group-specific vaccine development because they are not sensitive to viral genetic variabilities present on a broader range of isolates. Early studies on consecutive escape virus isolates suggested that the majority of the change in neutralization sensitivity of variants is driven by the selective pressure of type-specific neutralizing antibodies.48 No differences were observed in sensitivity to neutralization by anticarbohydrate neutralizing monoclonal antibodies or the lectin concanavalin A, indicating a conserved nature of certain carbohydrate neutralization epitopes during escape. The V3 sequence of three sets of consecutive virus isolates was analyzed revealing amino acid mutations in V3 sequences of all escape virus isolates. The biological significance of these variations was confirmed further by the demonstration of changes...

Acquisition Of The Gut Microbiota

During the initial phase of acquisition, facultative anaerobes predominate (enterobacteria and streptococci) and effectively reduce the redox potential of the gut environment enabling colonization by obligate anaerobes (including bacteroides, bifidobacteria, clostridia, and eubacteria). Factors such as diet and host genetics play important roles in the development of the microbiota (with some bacterial populations eliminated and others maintained) (3,24). The classical studies by Tissier almost a century ago first highlighted the significant difference of the fecal microbiota harbored by breastfed and formula-fed infants. Indeed, Tissier described three phases of microbial acquisition in infants 1, initial hours of life when the fecal bacterial content was nil 2, beginning between the tenth and twentieth hour of life, comprising a heterogeneous microbiota 3, after passage of maternal milk through the intestinal tract, the microbiota being predominated by bifidobacteria (an obligately...

Mucosal Immune Responses

The function of IgA at mucosal surfaces appears to be one of cross-linking pathogens in the lumen and facilitating their clearance by peristalsis. This is significant in that it would suggest that IgA antibodies need not be directed to classical neutralizing epitopes on gp120 (V3 loop), for example. A secretory immune response against a single surface epitope of a virus protein might block entry into the host at a lumenal site safely removed from target cells. Since neutralizing antibodies might not be required in this system, it is conceivable that IgAs against conserved epitopes might be protective. Mucosal responses against carbohydrate epitopes that are presented on the envelope protein of mucosal variants might prove to be a very effective means for vaccination. Targeting carbohydrates on HIV is not easy. The advantage to targeting such determinants is that whatever changes occur in the glycosylation patterns of viral variants that appear to affect neutralizing antibodies that...

Transition Metal Mediated Approaches To Cglycosides

Several years ago transition metal mediated reactions in the area of C-glycoside synthesis were primarily limited to palladium and to a lesser extent nickel and manganese. Over the last few years several other metals, including chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, cobalt, and rhodium, have been utilized in C-glycoside synthesis. This section discusses the chemistry of palladium, which is divided into Stille-type couplings and 77-allyl complexes. This is followed by considerations of the chemistry of chromium and the above-listed metals. A review by Frappa and Sinou entitled Transition Metal Catalysed Functionalization at the Anomeric Center of Carbohydrates'' appeared in early 1997 55 .

Other dairy products to improve infant health

Infant formulas or so called breast milk substitutes aim to provide an efficient and safe alternative diet for infants of those women who are not able to continue breastfeeding until six months of life. Infant formula can be fed directly after birth when breastfeeding is not possible follow-on formulas are designed for children after the sixth month of life. Breast milk substitutes aim to mimic the composition of human breast milk concerning protein, fat and carbohydrate composition. The only carbohydrate of infant formulas is lactose, whereas follow-on formulas contain other carbohydrates, too. Protein sources are mainly bovine whey or casein (in the standard cow's milk based formulas) or soy protein (for infants with lactose intolerance or cow milk protein allergy). The quality parameter for the evaluation of infant diets is the ability to allow normal physical growth as well as optimal neurological and mental development.

Dietary strategies to prevent the development of heart disease

The oxidised LDL theory is not inconsistent with the well-established lipid-lowering treatment of CHD, as there is a positive correlation between plasma levels of LDL and markers of lipid peroxidation93,98 and a low absolute LDL level results in reduced amounts of LDL available for oxidative modification. LDL levels can be lowered by drugs or by reducing saturated fats in the diet. Reduction of the oxidative susceptibility of LDL was reported when replacing dietary fat with carbohydrates. Pharmacological quantitative (lowering of cholesterol) and nutritional qualitative (high antioxidant intake) approaches of the prevention of CHD are not mutually exclusive but additive and complementary. An alternative way to reduce LDL concentrations is to replace saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats in the diet. However, diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids increase the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of LDL particles and render them more susceptible to oxidation28 which would argue...

Biological Roles of Carbohydrate Recognition

Carbohydrates, in the form of oligosaccharides or glyco-conjugates, are found on the cell surfaces and extracellular proteins of virtually all living organisms. Although roles for carbohydrates in endogenous physiological interactions had long been suspected, it was not until the 1970s, with the discovery of the hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor and Man-6-phosphate-mediated intracellular protein targeting, that firm evidence for such roles began to emerge. Since then, a number of animal lectin families have been identified 1,2 and their functions, in processes ranging from protein folding and quality control to leukocyte homing, have been the subject of considerable study. of roles for endogenous carbohydrate recognition in the development and functioning of the immune and nervous systems 3-5 . In addition, mutations affecting the elaboration of complex carbohydrates are now known to be the basis for a growing number of human diseases collectively known as the congenital disorders...

Carbohydrate Structure and Diversity

Most of the current evidence for the biological roles of complex carbohydrates comes from systems where they act as ligands for membrane-bound receptors that are lectins. Typically, these receptors have one or more extracellular CRDs, a single transmembrane-spanning region, and a relatively short cytosolic tail. In most cases, they are probably activated by receptor cross-linking mechanisms. Carbohydrates and Lectins in the Nucleocytosolic Compartment Galectins are also cytosolic and nuclear proteins, but they are not known to bind carbohydrates in these compartments however, galectins 1 and 3 have been implicated in pre-mRNA splicing, a process inhibited by oligosaccharide binding 69 . The galectins are also secreted from the cytoplasm (by non-classical pathways), and it is at the cell surface that they perform the carbohydrate-mediated processes discussed previously.

Viiconcluding Remarks

Compared to the usage of hydrolytic enzymes such as proteases, carbohydrates, and lipases, the application of oxidoreductases as a tool to improve the processa-bility and quality of food products is still in its infancy. Like hydrolytic enzymes, oxidoreductases are capable of tailoring the taste, texture, appearance, shelf life, nutritional value, and process tolerance of foods and the properties of all major food constituents (e.g., proteins, carbohydrates, oils, fats, flavors see Table 1). In both cases, they can exert a positive as well as a negative effect on the food quality parameters, which can be reduced or eliminated by careful selection of the raw materials, by properly controlling the process condition, by the addition of counteracting ingredients, and by genetic tools. Likewise, hydrolytic and redox-active enzymes often have more than one effect. A typical redox example is the multifunctional enzyme lipoxygenase, which can be applied to influence either taste, texture,...

Nonradioactive Trans Sialidase Screening Assay Silke Schrader and Roland Schauer

Trans-sialidase (TS E.C. 3.2.1.18) catalyzes the transfer of preferably a2,3-linked sialic acid to another glycan or glycoconjugate, forming a new a2,3-linkage to galactose or N-acetyl-galactosamine. In the absence of an appropriate acceptor, TS acts as a sialidase, hydrolyti-cally releasing glycosidically linked sialic acid. Interest in TS has increased rapidly in recent years owing to its great relevance to the pathogenicity of trypanosomes and its possible application in the regiospecific synthesis of sialylated carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. Recently, the authors described a newly developed nonradioactive screening test for monitoring TS activity (1). In this highly sensitive and specific assay, 4-methylumbelliferyl-P-d-galactoside is used as acceptor substrate and sialyllactose as donor to fluorimetrically detect enzyme activity in the low mU range ( 0.1-1 mU mL possible). The test can be applied to screen a large number of samples quickly and reliably during enzyme...

Dietary control of conventional risk factors cholesterol blood pressure type 2 diabetes and obesity

This was the basis of a new 'diet-heart hypothesis' in which cholesterol was not the central issue.36,123 In fact, the first dietary trials designed for the secondary prevention of CHD were based on the hypothesis that a cardioprotective diet should primarily reduce cholesterol.36 While the investigators succeeded in reducing cholesterol, they failed to reduce CHD mortality.41 This was mainly attributed to an insufficient effect of the tested diets on cholesterol, and the conclusion was that cholesterol-lowering drugs should be preferred. However, none of the diets tested in these old trials was patterned from the traditional diets of populations protected from CHD (e.g. vegetarian, Asian or Mediterranean), although these diets are associated with low cholesterol.119,122 Also, no trial was aimed at testing the cholesterol-lowering effect of a typical Mediterranean diet, probably because this diet was (and often still is) mistakenly regarded as a high-fat diet, allegedly not...

Glycogenesis and Glycogenolysis

Cells cannot accumulate very many separate glucose molecules, because an abundance of these would exert an osmotic pressure (see chapter 6) that would draw a dangerous amount of water into the cells. Instead, many organs, particularly the liver, skeletal muscles, and heart, store carbohydrates in the form of glycogen. Figure 5.4 Glycogenesis and glycogenolysis. Blood glucose entering tissue cells is phosphorylated to glucose 6-phosphate. This intermediate can be metabolized for energy in glycolysis, or it can be converted to glycogen ( 1 ) in a process called glycogenesis. Glycogen represents a storage form of carbohydrates that can be used as a source for new glucose 6-phosphate (2) in a process called glycogenolysis. The liver contains an enzyme that can remove the phosphate from glucose 6-phosphate liver glycogen thus serves as a source for new blood glucose.

Mass and energy balances of tomato crops 541 Carbon

The modelling of water relations of horticultural crops has been reviewed by Jones and Tardieu,23 van de Sanden24 and Jolliet.25 Research in this domain has been motivated by two main concerns (1) simulating the water status and its relation with various physiological functions (organ extension, stomatal opening, water flux and so on) and (2) simulating the water flux through the canopy to estimate the water requirements of crops. The basic framework that has generally been adopted is an analogue of Ohm's law the water volume flux along a certain path is proportional to the gradient of water potential and to the inverse of a flow resistance. For tomato, van Ieperen26 designed a model describing the pathway of water from the root environment to the atmosphere through one root compartment and three shoot layers within a vegetative plant, and the dynamics of water potential in roots, stems and leaves. Premises for modelling the water fluxes to the tomato fruit through the phloem and...

Postnatal development

Species is quite closely reflected in milk composition. Three principal components of mammalian milk are carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. As a crude approximation, it can be said that the carbohydrate content of milk reflects immediate energy needs of the offspring, while the fat content indicates energy needs over a longer term. The protein content of milk provides a fairly good indication of requirements for growth. Milk composition also provides an indication of maternal behavior. Here, a major distinction can be drawn between mothers that feed on schedule and those that feed on demand. For offspring that are fed on schedule, it is the mother that determines the suckling frequency. Commonly, this applies to offspring that are left in a nest. These tend to be fast growing but relatively inactive altricial offspring that must maintain their body temperature unaided in the absence of the mother. As a result, the milk of such species tends to be high in protein and fat but relatively...

Lipid Receptors Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors

Its function is not essential for survival as null homozygotes are phenotypically normal. However, these animals are insensitive to the actions of peroxisome proliferators and, when challenged with fasting or high-fat diets, experience perturbations in lipid and glucose homeosta-sis.388,389 These observations suggest that PPARa not only functions as a xenobiotic receptor but also may play a significant role in lipid home-ostasis in response to unknown physiological lig-ands.

Presumptive Diagnostic Tests

Once organisms are detected on or in growth media, various techniques are used to determine the genus and species of the organism. For bacteria, the differential growth on select media, metabolism of various carbohydrates and other chemicals, and the presence of selected enzymes are often used for identification. Special stains that incorporate florescent dyes coupled with antibodies to selected organisms are used for identification of bacteria and viruses.

Role of Sulfated Polysaccharides in the Pathogenesis of Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia

In this chapter, the mechanism and structural requirements for complex formation between sulfated carbohydrates, especially heparin, and proteins, such as platelet factor 4 (PF4), are reviewed. The pathophysiological consequences of these interactions in causing HIT are summarized. From these considerations, the prospects for development of carbohydrate-based heparin alternatives with a lower risk for immune thrombocytopenia are discussed. II. INTERACTIONS OF PF4 WITH SULFATED CARBOHYDRATES A. Structure of PF4

Fat protein and calories

Although some experimental studies suggest that carbohydrates may modulate the later stages of cancer, non-starch polysaccharides provide fibre which may have protective effects. For example, the high fibre content of the Finnish diet may counteract the enhancing effect of the high dietary fat on the risk of breast and colorectal cancer, the incidence of which is surprisingly low.

The Possibility of Continuously Measuring Energy Metabolism

The small body size of insects offers the opportunity of continuously monitoring the total energy metabolism of a whole population over their total life span. This results in a ''metabolic picture.'' One can then test the influence of different treatments (e.g., temperature, light program, drugs, mating, virginity) on the energy consumption. We performed such measurements with Phormia using an infrared CO2 monitoring system (URAS). Due to the restriction on carbohydrates as energy-providing substrate, the CO2 output equals the O2 input and therefore gives a true picture of energy metabolism. Thirty-five flies were placed in a respiration chamber and fed in the usual manner with sugar and water. The relatively big volume of the chamber allows unrestricted flying and walking activity. Figure 21.4 shows an example of such a measurement.

Protein misfolding and its consequences for disease

The deposition of proteins in the form of amyloid fibrils and plaques (Selkoe, 2003). Such deposits can form in the brain, in vital organs such as the liver and spleen, or in skeletal tissue, depending on the disease involved. In the case of neurodegen-erative diseases, the quantity of such aggregates can be almost undetectable in some cases, whilst in systemic diseases kilograms of protein can be found in such deposits. Each amyloid disease involves primarily the aggregation of a specific peptide or protein although a range of other components including other proteins and carbohydrates is also incorporated into the deposits when they form in vivo. The characteristics of the soluble forms of the twenty or so proteins involved in the well-defined amyloidoses are very varied -they range from intact globular proteins to largely unstructured peptide molecules - but the aggregated forms have many common characteristics in common (Sunde and Blake, 1997). Thus, amyloid deposits all show...

Relation Between the Anticoagulant Activity of 1 3Glucan Sulfates and Their Cross Reaction with HITAssociated Antibodies

To establish the structural requirements for the anticoagulant activity of sulfated carbohydrates, as well as for the development of platelet-activating immune complexes in the presence of HIT antibodies, we synthesized structurally well-defined sulfated polysaccharides (Greinacher et al., 1995). The resulting (-1,3-glucan sulfates (GluS) varied in their DS, MW, sulfation pattern, and chemically introduced glycosidic side chains (Fig. 4). Although these compounds differ structurally from heparin, they exhibit structure-dependent anticoagulant as well as antithrombotic activities (Alban et al., 1995 Franz and Alban, 1995). They also induce platelet activation in the presence of HIT antibodies (Greinacher et al., 1995). Therefore, neither uronic acids, amino groups, nor the a-1,4- or (-1, 4-glycosidic linkages found in heparin are essential for these biological properties.

Chemical Modification by Pegylation

Pegylation of proteins has been used successfully to increase the serum half-life of proteins (136). Pegylation involves chemical attachment of the polymer polyethylene glycol (Peg), to reactive regions of proteins or carbohydrates. Pegylated molecules have an increased hydrodynamic size because they create a water shell around the molecule. The increased hydrodynamic size can result in reduced clearance and thus allow the vivo activity of the protein to be conferred for a longer period of time.

Bactericidal activity and bacteriostasis mechanisms of action

With many molecules such as DNA, proteins and carbohydrates. It also destroys membrane lipids in a lipid peroxydation process (chain reaction). Free radicals can encourage the production of secondary messengers such as diacylglycerol or phosphatidic acid by its activity on cell membranes.

Using Sialyltransferases For The Synthesis Of Sialosides

Enzyme-mediated glycosylations are powerful methods for the synthesis of complex carbohydrates, including those that contain sialic acid 30,31 . In mammalian systems, Leloir pathway glycosyltransferases are responsible for the biosynthesis of most glycoconjugates 32 . Sialyltransferases are a subset of the glycosyltransferases that transfer the NeuAc component of acid (88, CMP-NeuAc) to acceptor hydroxyl groups with inversion of configuration at the anomeric center (Scheme 28) 30,31 . Transferase-mediated sialylations are not burdened by some of the pitfalls of chemical glycosylations, such as un-

Structural Features And Energetics

The structural features of monovalent lectin-ligand complexes have been elucidated through X-ray crystallographic analysis 1,18-20 . These complexes have helped facilitate an understanding of the energetics of monovalent carbohydrate binding to proteins they have facilitated structure-based free energy calculations, as well as providing a basis for interpretation of titration microcalorimetry experiments 10,21 -23 . Although proteins can bind carbohydrates tightly, lectin binding sites are often solvent-exposed indentations rather than deep binding pockets. In these shallow binding sites, contacts are made with a limited portion of the carbohydrate ligand (Figs. 1 and 2). Monovalent interactions appear to rely on hydrogen bonding, metal chelation, water displacement and reorganization, hydrophobic contacts, and Coulombic interactions. We will use specific protein-lectin interactions to illustrate these energetic contributions. Coulombic interactions between carbohydrate binding...

Oral diseases and cariogenicity

Human teeth are highly vascularized, calcified structures coated with a biofilm of indigenous and endogenous microorganisms (Fig. 7.1). This very nutritional substrate becomes the primary focus for dental caries. Caries lesions result from interactions of odontopathogenic bacteria that colonize the tooth surface (Fig. 7.2). In Fig. 7.2 oral microbial flora embedded in the plaque biofilm utilize dietary sugars to produce mutans and organic acids. The organic acids demineralize calcium and other cations from the tooth's hydroxyapatite crystals. The body counteracts demoralization by the salivary protein statherin binding calcium to remineralize the tooth's surface. Dental caries worsen if odontopathogenic bacteria overcome the body's ability to remineralize the tooth. Dairy proteins, especially caseinophosphopeptides, have a role similar to statherin. Severe periodontitis, an anaerobic infection in the gingival crevice and crevicular fluid, elicits an inflammatory reaction in gum...

[2 Imaging Platforms for Measurement of Membrane Trafficking

Membrane traffic enables cells to distribute proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates between membrane compartments and is thus vital for many cellular processes such as cell growth, homeostasis, and differentiation. Genetic and biochemical approaches have been very efficiently applied in the past to identify and characterize individual molecular components involved in the regulation of membrane traffic in the secretory and endo-cytic pathways. Central to many of these studies has been the reconstitution of the particular transport step of interest in vitro using purified components. Although this has led to an enormous body of information on how membrane traffic is organized at the molecular level, such simplified in vitro systems are lacking important regulatory elements relating to the spatial organization that occurs in living cells. More recently, systematic approaches, such as organelle proteomics or yeast two hybrid screening, have attempted to identify structural and regulatory...

The role of dairy products in preventing dental caries

An individual's dietary and social patterns are major contributors to one's oral health. The quality of life can be greatly impacted as a result of poor oral health leaving a negative impact on self-esteem, eating ability, and social functioning (Moynihan, 2005). Several oral diseases can be linked back to poor nutrition, and as teeth deteriorate the conditions are exacerbated. Studies (Johansson et al., 1994, Norlen et al., 1993) have shown edentulous individuals are more apt to have inadequate dietary intake (high carbohydrate, high fat, low nutrient density foods) than dentate individuals. Sugars, specifically Tooth surfaces are colonized by a variety of bacterial species that hydrolyze dietary carbohydrates to organic acids (Figs 7.2 and 7.3). This commensal relationship establishes a complex microbial ecosystem composed of aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic microorganisms. These bacteria are integral components of plaque. Some of them are opportunistic cariogenic pathogens...

Adaptations in the digestive system

All carnivores, when fed a whole prey-based diet, consume proteins and fats from the muscle, vitamins from organs and gut contents, minerals from bones, and roughage from the hide, feathers, hooves, teeth, and gut contents. Felids are set apart from other, more omnivorous meat eaters because of their inability to effectively utilize carbohydrates as an energy source. They therefore depend on a higher concentration of fats and protein in their diet, as well as dietary sources of preformed vitamin A and D, arachadonic acid (an essential fatty acid), and taurine.

Methods In Enzymology

Complex Carbohydrates Volume XXVIII. Complex Carbohydrates (Part B) Edited by Victor Ginsburg Volume L. Complex Carbohydrates (Part C) Edited by Victor Ginsburg Volume 83. Complex Carbohydrates (Part D) Edited by Victor Ginsburg Volume 138. Complex Carbohydrates (Part E) Edited by Victor Ginsburg Volume 179. Complex Carbohydrates (Part F) Edited by Victor Ginsburg Volume 362. Recognition of Carbohydrates in Biological Systems (Part A) Edited by Yuan C. Lee and Reiko T. Lee Volume 363. Recognition of Carbohydrates in Biological Systems (Part B) Edited by Yuan C. Lee and Reiko T. Lee

Specificity in Multivalent Recognition Concanavalin A Discriminates Between Related Multidentate Ligands

The specificity of ligand binding for a multivalent protein-carbohydrate interaction was explored by using ConA. ConA binds both glucose and mannose residues, but it binds monovalent C-mannoside 9 with a slightly (0.2 kcal mol) more favorable free energy than the corresponding C-glucoside 8 (Fig. 12) 54 . Whether the small difference observed in the monovalent binding event would be manifested with the corresponding multivalent ligands has been explored. By examining the ability of glucose- and mannose-substituted polymers to inhibit ConA-mediated agglutination, the inhibitory potencies of mannose-modified polymer 11 could be compared with the corresponding glucose counterpart 10 in a hemagglutinaton assay (Fig. 12). Not surprisingly, no difference in potency was detected between the glucose and mannose monovalent C-glycosides 8 and 9. The activity difference between the glucose- and mannose-substituted polymers, however, is greater than 100-fold 31 . Consequently, multivalent...

Familial hypercholesterolemia and statins

In fact, mortality prior to the beginning of the twentieth century did not differ significantly from standard mortality rates and most individuals with the mutation had a normal life span. It was only during the twentieth century that mortality rates of carriers increased dramatically over the standard rate. The increase in mortality in the twentieth century is likely to have been caused by environmental factors such as smoking and high fat diet working in conjunction with the LDL receptor mutation.

Low Molecular Weight Trimeric Galactose Displays Can Be Potent Ligands for the Hepatic Lectin on the Cell Surface

Multivalent displays of galactose and -acetylgalactosamine epitopes have been synthesized to identify the features important for glycoconjugate recognition and en-docytosis by the hepatic lectin 117,118 . Initial studies, performed with galactose-substituted neoglycoproteins and polyacrylamide gels, demonstrated that the receptor binds more efficiently to multivalent ligands 119 . Since many natural saccharides contain branched or multiantennary structures, several groups postulated that high-affinity recognition of carbohydrates in biological systems requires the presentation of clustered saccharide residues 108,118 . To test this idea and to elucidate structure-function relationships, Lee's group and others have synthesized a number of nonnatural low molecular weight multivalent compounds 97,108,109,120 . The compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the binding to hepatocytes of radiolabeled asiolomucoid, a ligand for the hepatic lectin. A synthetic trivalent compound,...

Prevention strategies whole populations highrisk groups or selected individuals

That second issue goes further than that. As Rose eloquently pointed out, those factors that best explain the occurrence of cases within a population may not best account for the rate of the disease within the population at large. For example, if the population, overall, consumes a high-fat diet, then whether or not an individual smokes cigarettes may best explain whether he she develops coronary heart disease. Meanwhile, the population-wide dietary behavior may be the main source of the elevated rate of coronary heart disease within that population. Consider another example, admittedly extreme, but it helps to make the point. If within a population everyone smoked 20 cigarettes per day, then the prime determinant of individual risk of lung cancer might well be one or more genetic polymorphisms which determine the fate of inhaled carcinogens. Yet it is the smoking that accounts for the overall high rate of lung cancer in that hapless population.

Characteristics ofClinically Tested AntiHIV Antibodies 231 MAb 2G12

The antibody 2G12 recognizes a cluster of high mannose carbohydrates of N-linked glycosylated amino acid residues on the immunologically silent face of gp120 (Trkola et al. 1996b Wyatt et al. 1998a Sanders et al. 2002 Scanlan et al. 2002) and has broad neutralizing activity in vitro against isolates from subtype B and to a lesser extent also against other subtypes (Burton et al. 1994 Binley et al. 2004 Trkola et al. 2005). The heavy and light chains of 2G12 are not associated in a traditional Y-like manner but instead are lying vertically and adjacent to one another. This unique structure provides the antibody with the flexibility to undergo multivalent interactions with the gp120 oligomannose cluster (Calarese et al. 2003). Phase I and phase I II studies with this antibody have been conducted (Armbruster et al. 2002 Stiegler et al. 2002 Trkola et al. 2005).

Fungus Nematode Interactions

Small peptides, e.g., phenylalanyl valine (Nordbring-Hertz 1973) or by nematodes (Nordbring-Hertz 1977). The presence of traps is a prerequisite for infection of living nematodes, and in fact increases the ability of the fungus to chemically attract nematodes (Jansson 1982). After contact between the fungal trap and the nematode cuticle (Figure 3 bottom left) a possible contact recognition step occurs involving a fungal lectin binding to N-acetylgalactose amine (Gal-NAc) on the nematode surface (Nordbring-Hertz and Mattiasson 1979). The nematode surface, the cuticle (Figure 3 bottom right), consists of several layers containing proteins (mainly collagen), lipids, and carbohydrates (Bird and Bird 1991). Externally to the cuticle a surface coat (or glycocalyx) consisting of glycoproteins is found (Bird and Bird 1991). The surface coat is probably the part of the nematode surface most relevant to recognition and adhesion of nematophagous fungi, since proteolytic removal of this structure...

Nonpsychotic Disorders

Because alcohol is rich in carbohydrates but low in proteins and vitamins, long-term users can develop cirrhosis of the liver due to protein deficiency or Korsakoff's syndrome due to vitamin B deficiency. The symptoms of Korsakoff's syndrome, a chronic brain disorder occurring most often in chronic alcoholics in their fifties and sixties, include disorientation, impulsiveness, memory loss, confabulation,1 and inflammation of the peripheral nerves of the body.

Syntheses of Suitably Functionalized Sialosides

To this end, suitably functionalized V-acetylneuraminic acid derivatives were required. A convergent approach in which various sialoside haptens and other carbohydrates of interest could be attached to multivalent scaffolds at a late stage was chosen. This strategy offers the advantage of permitting further optimization of binding interactions where appropriate.

Putative Function in the Starch Deposition of Higher Plants

In chloroplasts, starch phosphorylase is regarded as a starch degradative enzyme in the diurnal starch accumulation cycle (7). However, whether starch phosphor-ylase plays a similar role in the amyloplasts of storage tissues has not been determined. Since amyloplasts are actively involved in starch biosynthesis, it is conceivable that Pho 1-type starch phosphorylases could play a synthetic role using Glc-l-P as substrate. This is supported by the observation that high levels of the plas-tidic starch phosphorylase transcript levels as well as starch phosphorylase enzyme activity present in sink tissues of spinach. Source leaves, however, contained low amounts of plastidic starch phosphorylase transcripts. In addition, the induction of starch phosphor-ylase expression was observed when the leaf disks were supplied with carbohydrates (8). Some primer-independent starch phosphorylase isoforms could also be involved in the initiation of starch biosynthesis by synthesis of glucan primers....

Obesity Susceptibility Genes Food Intake and Energy Expenditure

Little is known about the more recently discovered loci and genes. The neuron-specific over-expression of SH2B1 has been shown to be protective against high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice (Ren et al, 2007), whereas the BDNF variant has been shown to be associated with eating behaviour in humans (Bauer et al, 2009 Shugart et al, 2009). A recent study in 1700 Dutch women (Bauer et al, 2009) examined the majority of the newly discovered obesity loci found that the SH2B1, KCTD15, MTCH2, NEGR1, and BDNF loci were associated with dietary macronutrient intake.

Reproductive biology

African collared doves (0.33 lb 150 g ) increase body weight by 7 during incubation, but only 1 is due to weight increase of the crop gland. The rest is explained by increased water content of body tissue water is used for crop milk. Crop milk is unique in birds and consists of fatty degenerated crop cells. Crop milk contains no carbohydrates, but is 76 water, 12 protein, 6 fat, and 1.5 minerals. Consistency is quite different from mammalian milk, but production is under the control of the pituitary hormone pro-lactin in male and female pigeons. Prolactin plays the same role in mammals.

Biological Function of Phenolic Phytochemicals

Compelling epidemiological and scientific evidence has led to an understanding that oxidative stress, as a consequence of an imbalance of prooxidants and antioxidants, is a key phenomenon in the manifestation of chronic diseases (90). Powerful strategies to control oxidative stress related pathogenicities are gaining prominence. Epidemiological evidence showing that populations consuming diets rich in fruits and vegetables have lower incidences of many chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes has led to an interest in the use of diet as a potential tool for the control of these oxidative diseases (86-89). Recent in vitro and clinical studies have shown that diets rich in carbohydrates and fats induced oxidative stress, which was decreased by consuming fruits, vegetables, and their products (93). Among all the dietary components, fruits and vegetables have especially been shown to exert a protective effect (23-26). Phenolic phytochemicals with antioxidant...

[3 Cellular and Molecular Analysis of Neural Development of Glycosyltransferase Gene Knockout Mice

Recent studies demonstrate that carbohydrates synthesized by specific glycosyltransferases play important roles in the development of the central nervous system. Among these carbohydrates, polysialic acid is a unique glycan that modulates functions of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) by attenuating NCAM-mediated interaction between neural cells. During brain development, polysialic acid is synthesized in a specific spatiotemporal pattern by two polysialyltransferases, ST8SiaII and ST8SiaIV. To study in vivo the roles of polysialic acid synthesized by each respective enzyme, we generated ST8SiaII and ST8SiaIV knockout mice. Single knockout ST8SiaII or ST8SiaIV mice show polysialic acid expression patterns differing from wild type, and those patterns indicate different roles of each gene during neural development. In this chapter, we discuss methods used to analyze polysialyltransferase knockout mice using immunohistochemistry of brain and primary cultures of neurons. Recent...

The SHBsAg Protein and the Assembly of HDV Particles

Protein should be present on S-WHsAg and absent on the small DHBV envelope protein (S-DHBsAg). Compared to S-HBsAg or S-WHsAg, the S-DHBsAg polypeptide appears to lack the region corresponding to the antigenic loop between TMD2 and the carboxyl terminal hydrophobic domain (Fig. 3). When part of this domain (from residues 107 to 147) was experimentally deleted on S-HBsAg, it led to a drastic reduction in the capacity of the mutant for HDV maturation (O'Malley and Lazinski 2002). Interestingly, this deletion mutant was competent for the envelopment of the singly expressed L-HDAg protein, suggesting that the hindrance observed in RNP envelopment may rather reflect a lesser flexibility of the envelope, which could no longer accommodate an RNP, than a lack of binding. On one hand, S-DHBsAg cannot package the RNP and cannot interact with L-HDAg, and on the other hand, a S-HBsAg mutant that mimics S-DHBsAg in lacking the antigenic loop, is also deficient for packaging the RNP, while...

Metabolites From Lactic Acid Bacteria

A wide variety of raw foods are preserved by lactic acid fermentation, including milk, meat, fruits, and vegetables. Reduction of pH and removal of large amount of carbohydrates by fermentation are the primary preservation actions that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) provide to a fermented food. These actions are largely ineffective in preventing the growth of fungi in foods. However, it has also been recognized that LAB can produce inhibitory substances other than organic acid (acetate and acetate) that are antagonistic toward other microorganisms (Batish et al. 1997). The antibacterial properties of LAB are well documented. Several LAB, typically of the genera Lactococcus and Lactobacillus produce antibacterial substances. Antifungal properties of LAB have received little attention, however, several metabolites of LAB have been reported to have antifungal activity.

Phenolic antioxidants

A large variety of phenolic phytochemicals that have several beneficial functions on human health are present in plants and especially in fruits. The phenolic phytochemicals are generally present in their glycosidic and nonglycosidic forms. The glycosides are mainly confined to hydrophilic regions in the cells, such as in vacuoles and apoplasts, probably because of their higher water solubility (197,198). Glycosylation of the hydroxyl groups on the phenolic ring of a phenolic phytochemical renders the molecule more water soluble and less reactive toward free radicals (6). Glucose is the most commonly involved sugar in glycoside formation, although phenolic glycosides of galactose, rhamnose, xylose, and arabinose and disaccharides such as rutinose, have also been reported in plants (6). Polymeric phenolics such as tannins exist primarily as condensed tannins or proanthocyanidins and are formed biosynthetically by the condensation of single catechins and flavonols. They are present...

Possibilities and Limitations of Rumen Simulation Methods

The duration of the fermentation in closed batch culture should be adjusted carefully according to the substrates and cell density to prevent the deprivation and inhibitory effects of accumulating metabolites. As a consequence in either case, the most fastidious bacteria and protozoa are at risk of being lost. A shorter incubation time should be used with substrates that are rapidly fermented. By using actual feed components and compositions, the risk of substrate deprivation during simulations is reduced. For example, Leedle and Hespell (54) have reported the selective effects of single or purified carbohydrates and nitrogen substrates on microbial population. The amount of feed should be not only adequate in relation to the microbial density in vitro, but also in relation to the calculated total digestive nutrient requirement of the host (44).

Analyzing Glycosylation Changes

Numerous factors exist which lead to differential glycosylation of glycopro-teins. Viral envelope proteins expressed by different viral strains may be differentially glycosylated, as demonstrated for the Ebola virus by Lin et al. (10). Variability in the sequence of viral envelope proteins among different isolates may directly lead to loss of oligosaccharide acceptor sites or may alter protein conformation, thereby preventing access of the cellular glycosylation machinery to potential glycosylation sites (2). Secondly, changes in culture conditions or producer-cell type may result in the expression of a number of different gly-coforms, because different cell types may differ in the repertoire of glycosyl-transferases and glycosidases expressed, and in the time taken for proteins to transit the secretory pathway. For instance, the glycosylation of HIV gp120 varies significantly between CD4+ T cells and macrophages, the two cellular targets of HIV infection in vivo, with Env produced in...

Retrieving and Analyzing GEO Data

A screen shot of a typical DataSet record, GDS279, which investigates the effect of a high-fat diet on liver tissue in wild-type and LDL receptor-deficient mice (6). The locations of the main DataSet features and tools are indicated. Fig. 1. GEO DataSet record. A screen shot of a typical DataSet record, GDS279, which investigates the effect of a high-fat diet on liver tissue in wild-type and LDL receptor-deficient mice (6). The locations of the main DataSet features and tools are indicated. Fig. 2. Screenshot of GEO Profiles retrievals and expanded profile chart. (A) Screen shot of GEO Profiles retrievals for GDS279, a DataSet that investigates the effect of a high-fat diet on liver tissue in wild-type and LDL receptor-deficient mice (6). Each retrieval represents an individual gene on the array. The locations of various features are indicated. (B) Expanded chart for the Cidec gene. The chart bars represent relative gene expression levels in each Sample...

Effect of Glycosylation Changes on the Interaction of Viral Envelope Glycoproteins With the Immune System

Carbohydrates are generally regarded as poorly immunogenic because (1) identical glycan epitopes are also found on host cell glycoproteins, thus are recognized as self by the immune system, (2) glycoproteins display considerable microheterogeneity, and (3) carbohydrates are extensive structures that may mask potential protein-based epitopes (22). Indeed the glycosylation of HIV gp120 is thought to act as an evolving glycan shield, whereby changes in N-glycosylation acceptor sites due to escape mutations in gp120 enable HIV to evade the host immune response by shielding underlying epitopes with variable glycosylation (23,24). Similarly, the acquisition of N-glycosylation sequons in the influenza H3 HA1 glycoprotein is also thought to protect from the binding of neutralizing antibodies (25). Recent studies of antibodies, produced in monkeys inoculated with SIV gp120 glycosylation mutants, indicate that N-linked glycosylation influences immunogenicity in addition to antigenicity (15).

Respiration And Dry Matter Losses

Harvested grain carries a wide range of bacterial and fungal contaminants. Depending on effectiveness of storage conditions, and the climatic region of the world the level and type of contamination will vary. Grain itself and the microbial contaminants respire slowly when stored dry. However, if the water availability is increased to 15-19 moisture content ( 0.75-0.85 aw) predominantly spoilage fungi, particularly Eurotium spp., Aspergillus, and Penicillium species grow resulting in a significant increase in respiratory activity, resulting in increased temperature and sometimes spontaneous heating that results in colonization by thermophilic fungi and actinomycetes (Fleurat-Lessard 2002 Lacey and Magan 1991). The chemical process involved in heat generation is predominantly aerobic oxidation of carbohydrates such as starch. The energy is released by the following equation By utilizing the respiratory quotient CO2 production can be translated into dry matter loss. Typically, complete...

Composition of the luminal content of the colon

Contrary to the supposed detrimental effect of BA on the colon, SCFA, derived from bacterial digestion of fiber and complex carbohydrates in the colon, have trophic action on the mucosa and are possibly protective against inflammation and cancer (Bugaut and Bentejac, 1993, Tonelli et al., 1995).

Human Flora Associated Animals

Observed in mice that were fed with an amylose rich diet (Fig. 2). This suggests that diet, and specifically dietary ingredients such as certain carbohydrates, are important for the composition of the GI microbota and that previously nondetectable microbial groups may be stimulated to detectable levels. Consideration may be given to the possibility that the growth of microbal populations due to dietary intervention, may be at the expense of less competitive microbial groups. HFA rodents are useful in studies of the metabolic activity of the human microbiota. The effects of microbiota on the metabolism of lignans and isoflavones have been investigated in studies using germ-free and HFA rats (98). In similar studies, HFA rats have been used to assess the metabolism of dietary fats (99,100). The usefulness of HFA animals has also been illustrated in studies such as those conducted on the effect of complex carbohydrates on the human microbiota, including the effect of resistant starch...

The RSV Attachment G Glycoprotein

First, we describe methods for the analysis of glycosylation changes in the G glycoprotein that result from the production of RSV in distinct cell lines (see Subheadings 3.3. and 3.4.). The methods outlined are based on Western blotting using specific MAbs, or on reactivity of G protein glycoforms with certain lectins or carbohydrate-specific antibodies. Second, the influence of carbohydrates on G protein antigenicity (see Subheadings 3.5. and 3.6.) is analyzed by the reactivity of antibodies with segments of Gs. The procedures described are carried out on either glycosylated Gs fragments, resulting from Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease digestion, or on Gs that is deprived of carbohydrates, achieved by bacterial expression of a glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-fusion construct of the Gs C terminal domain. Although a focus is placed on the RSV G protein, these methods may be easily adapted to other highly glycosylated viral glycoproteins.

T Cell Receptor Proteins

The antigens recognized by B lymphocytes may be either proteins or carbohydrates, but only protein antigens are recognized by most T lymphocytes. Unlike B cells, T cells do not make antibodies and thus do not have antibodies on their surfaces to serve as receptors for these antigens. The T cells do, however, have a different type of antigen receptor on their membrane surfaces, and these T cell receptors have been identified as molecules closely related to the immunoglobulins. The T cell receptors differ from the antibody receptors on B cells in a very important respect the T cell receptors cannot bind to free antigens. In order for T lymphocytes to respond to foreign antigens, the antigens must be presented to the T cells on the membrane of antigen-presenting cells.

Factors Affecting AflatoxinST Biosynthesis

The best-known nutritional factors affecting aflatoxin biosynthesis are carbon and nitrogen sources (Adye and Mateles 1964 Bennettetal. 1979 Luchese and Harrigan 1993). It is clear that simple sugars such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, and maltose support aflatoxin formation, while peptone and lactose are not (Buchanan and Stahl 1984 Payne and Brown 1998). Woloshuk et al. (1997) reported the connection between alpha amylase activity and aflatoxin production in A. flavus. Yu et al. (2000c) identified a group of four genes that constitute a well-defined gene cluster related to sugar utilization in A. parasiticus next to the aflatoxin pathway gene cluster. The expression of the hxtA gene, encoding a hexose transporter protein, was found to be concurrent with the aflatoxin pathway cluster genes in aflatoxin-conducive medium. This is the first evidence that primary metabolism (sugar metabolism) and secondary metabolism (aflatoxin biosynthesis) are genetically linked on the chromosome. A...

Naturally Occurring Pyranosyl Sugar Amino Acids

Sugar amino acids are carbohydrates containing both amine and carboxylic acid functionalities in place of hydroxyls and are structurally distinct from glycopeptides. Naturally occurring sugar amino acids come in several types, consisting of both amino furanosiduronic and pyranosiduronic acids. This chapter includes the latter class of compounds, often referred to as amino hexuronic acids. Hexuronic acids are six-carbon monosaccharides containing both an aldehyde and a chain-terminating carboxylic acid. The amino hexuronic acids have amine functionalities in place of hydroxyl groups normally found in sugars.

Introduction and role of phenolic secondary metabolites

In plants, primary products such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, photosynthetic components, and nucleic acids are common to all they are involved in the primary metabolic processes of building and maintaining cells. In contrast, secondary metabolites do not appear to have such a vital biochemical role, but studies have indicated a role of these chemicals in defense and stress response of plants. Some of the most abundant stress

Plant phenolics in human health and as antioxidants

Among many functional roles, the most important function assigned to phenolics is their antioxidant activity. Antioxidants may be defined as substances, which when present in low concentrations compared with those of an oxidizable substrate, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, delay or prevent the oxidation of the substrate (38). Phenolic antioxidants from dietary plants can be useful to counter reactive oxygen species related to human diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are able to oxidize cellular components such as DNA, lipids, and proteins (23). Dysfunction of oxidative phosphorylation at the mitochondrion has been recognized as a major physiological source of ROS (39). Lipid peroxidation damages the structural integrity of the mitochondria, which can result in organelle swelling, resulting in increased permeability to cations, decreased membrane potential, and damage to electron transfer activities (40). This form of tissue damage can ultimately lead to some of the...

The Prebiotic Strategy To Modifying The Intestinal Microbiota

While the probiotic strategy aims to supplement the intestinal microbiota via the ingestion of live bacteria, the prebiotic strategy aims to stimulate the proliferation and or activity of beneficial microbial populations already resident in the intestine. The characteristics shared by all successful prebiotics is that they remain largely undigested during passage through the stomach and small intestine and selectively stimulate only beneficial populations of bacteria in the colon. That is not to say that prebiotics cannot be theoretically designed to target bacteria within the stomach and small intestine, but rather those currently developed tend to target bifidobacteria, which predominantly reside in the colon. Importantly, prebiotics should not stimulate the proliferation or pathogenicity of potentially deleterious micro-organisms within the intestinal microbiota. To date, most prebiotics have been non-digestible carbohydrates, particularly oligosaccharides. Since the prebiotics...

Syntheses And Structural Characterization Of Amidolinked Oligomers With Stable Secondary Structure

Non-Carbohydrate-Based Materials Although this chapter is focused on carbohydrate-based compounds, it is important to briefly describe the pioneering work of Gellman and Seebach directed to the syntheses of amido-linked oligomers derived from - and y-amino acids that are not based on carbohydrates. These researchers and others 55 have engineered systems that adopt stable helical, sheet, and turn conformations in solution. Surprisingly, in many cases as few as four residues is sufficient to stabilize the conformation. This completely contrasts with oligomers derived from a-amino acids which typically require many more residues before conformational stability is established 56 .

Introduction and background

The production of milk by female mammals provides a rich source of nutrients for newborn animals and is composed of a combination of macromolecules such as fat, protein, and carbohydrates in addition to other organic factors. LAB are present in animal milk and species such as Lactobacillus reuteri and have been cultured from human breast milk (Casas, 2000). LAB may reside as indigenous components of mammalian milk and growth in the GIT may be stimulated by complex carbohydrates and prebiotics provided in Extensive comparisons among LAB genomes are generating fundamental insights regarding aspects of microbial metabolism that may be important for strain selection in numerous dairy food applications. LAB appear to have many transporters at the cell surface that facilitate uptake and utilization of carbohydrates and proteins. The increased understanding of metabolic pathways may yield improved strain selection and food processing strategies. Knowledge of the genomic sequence has yielded...

Functional genomics of macromolecular and nutrient metabolism

Based on comparative genomics and putative gene expression patterns of LAB, it is clear that these organisms are equipped to utilize a variety of mono-, di- and oligosaccharides. The coordinated regulation of expression of genes involved in sugar transport depended on sugars present in the local environment (Barrangou, 2006). Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) sugar transferase systems were important for the uptake of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and trehalose, whereas ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters were important for the uptake of raffinose and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) in L. acidophilus (Barrangou, 2006). The PEP sugar phosphotransferase and ABC transporter systems appear to be important features of LAB that are particularly adept at sugar uptake and utilization. For example, L. johnsonii encodes 16 phosphotransferase-type sugar transporter systems, representing a relatively large number of sugar transporter systems when compared to other bacteria with similarly sized genomes...

Insights from rodent models

Early loss-of-function studies focused on molecules previously identified as potentially important modifiers of lipid handling. From these studies, apoE (Plump et al., 1992 Zhang et al., 1992) and the LDL receptor (Ishibashi et al., 1993) were confirmed as important modifiers of cholesterol levels. Mice lacking either apoE or the LDL receptor develop significant atherosclerotic lesions when fed a high fat diet. This observation paved the way for a deluge of studies looking at genetic influences on atherosclerosis lesion size in apoE and LDL receptor knockout mice (Glass and Witztum, 2001). Consequently, a solid body of new information has emerged on the mechanisms regulating plasma lipoprotein levels and controlling the initial stages of atherogenesis. The obvious advantage of studying the effect of a gene in mice predisposed to developing atherosclerosis is that anti-atherogenic effects of a gene may be more readily detected (Table 24.3).

Food and health applications of probiotics translational aspects

Probiotic bacteria may express specific genes resulting in production of different biological macromolecules when cultured in milk or dairy products. As an example, L. bulgaricus strains may produce different amounts and types of heteropolysaccharides when grown in milk (Bouzar, 1996). Heteropolysaccharides rich in arabinose content were produced by specific L. bulgaricus strains. Carbohydrates produced by LAB may act as prebiotics for other organisms. Prebiotics are defined as nondigestible food ingredients that may beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth or the activity of beneficial bacteria. Infants fed milk with fermented yogurt cultures including L. casei had increased yields of lactobacilli in feces and decreased amounts of enzymatic bacterial markers b-galactosidase and b-glucuronidase (Guerin-Danan, 1998). Interestingly, infants fed traditional yogurt yielded increased numbers of enterococci in feces and reduced percentages of branched-chain or...

Mechanisms Of The Bifidogenic Effect

The mechanism(s) by which prebiotics promote the relatively specific proliferation of bifidobacteria remain speculative. It is probably due to the efficient utilization of these carbohydrates as carbon and energy sources by bifidobacteria relative to other intestinal bacteria, and their tolerance to the SCFA and acidification of the microenvironment resulting from fermentation. Additionally, many bifidobacteria adhere to large granular substrates such as resistant starch and these may provide a site for colonization as well as a substrate (13,169). The ability of bifidobacteria to use a wide variety of oligosaccharides and other complex carbohydrates reflects their evolution in the hind-gut of humans and animals where the ability to metabolize a diverse range of food and host-derived complex carbohydrates and glycoproteins provides a competitive advantage. Analysis of the Bif. longum genome has revealed a large number of proteins specialized for the catabolism of carbohydrates (170).

Phosphate and phenylpropanoid pathways

It is hypothesized that synthesis of free soluble phenolics and l-DOPA is regulated via the proline linked pentose-phosphate pathway (PLPPP), shikimate pathway, and phenylpropanoid pathway (23,30) (Figure 9.1). PPP is an alternate route for the breakdown of carbohydrates generating NADPH for use in anabolic reactions and for providing erythrose-4-phosphate for the shikimate pathway (23,30). This route is vital for the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid secondary metabolites, including l-DOPA (Figure 9.1). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) catalyses the first committed and rate-limiting step of PPP (85). A putative correlation has been observed between proline levels and total soluble phenolics in thyme, oregano, seeds of Pangium edule, and pea, which suggests that proline accumulation may be linked to the regulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway (86-88). The stimulation of PPP, purine, (89) and soluble phenolic (23,30) synthesis is believed to occur through a redox cycle....

Brown Rot And Soft Rot Fungi

Brown rot fungi belonging to the basidiomycetes extensively degrade cell wall carbohydrates and only modify the lignin (Eriksson et al. 1990). Demethylation is the most obvious consequence of attack on lignin by these fungi. The brown rot fungi grows mainly in the cell lumen next to the secondary wall and cause a generalized, diffuse rot (Blanchette 2000). The residual wood is brown and often cracks into cubical pieces when dry. Brown rot fungi have an obvious preference for coniferous substrates (gymnosperms), which are softwoods. A survey of substrate relationships reported that 19 of North American basiodiomycetes are brown rot fungi,

Solubilizing Activity of Carbohydrases

When enzymes are tested on insoluble substrate (e.g., cell wall polysaccharides), a relatively simple assay to monitor the solubilization of pectic material is by using (automated) colorimetric assays like the m-hydroxybi-phenyl assay (32, 33) for uronic acids and the phenol-sulfuric acid or orcinol-sulfuric acid assay for neutral sugars (34, 35). Obviously, the latter two methods are not very discriminative for the various neutral sugars, but can be used quite satisfactorily to monitor enzyme activity. More information on the enzyme is obtained when the determination of concentration of the solu-bilized carbohydrates is combined with information on their size (e.g., reducing sugar assay or size exclusion chromatography).

High Performance Anion Exchange Chromatography of Oligosaccharides

Although many different types of chromatography have been used to separate oligosaccharides (52, 53), HPAEC using alkaline elution conditions in combination with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) is preferred for specifically monitoring oligosaccharides (5557). The principles for both separation and detection are nicely described by Hensall (56). In principle, separation is based on interaction with a strong anion exchange resin, and usually salt (sodium acetate) gradients in 100 mM NaOH are used to elute the oli-gosaccharides. Since elution is usually performed in alkali, even neutral carbohydrates bind to the column and can be eluted later on. HPAEC allows separation of oligosaccharides with a DP up to 50. PAD detection is direct (no derivatization required), highly sensitive, and compatible with the gradients commonly used in HPAEC. When neutral eluents are used to separate charged oligosaccharides, alkali should be added post column prior to detection since PAD detection of...

Modifying Intestinal Microbiota Composition Through Intake Of Probiotics

In the human GIT, variability exists in bacterial numbers and composition between the stomach, small intestine and colon. The total bacterial count in gastric contents is usually below 103 per gram contents with numbers in the small intestine ranging from about 104 per ml of contents to about 106-107 at the terminal ileum (79). In comparison to other regions of the GIT, the human large intestine is a complex, heavily populated and diverse microbial ecosystem. Bacterial numbers in the human large intestine are in the range of 10n-1012 for every gram of the gut contents (80). The colonic microbiota is capable of responding to anatomical and physicochemical variations that are present. The right or proximal colon is characterized by a relatively high substrate availability (due to dietary input), a pH of around 5.5-6.0 (from acids produced during microbial fermentation) and a more rapid transit than the distal region. The left or distal area of colon has a lower concentration of...

Future of Transgenic Mouse Approaches Need for Inducible Expression

Many eukaryotic promoters are under natural inducible control, providing a simple means for controlling the extent and duration of expression. For example, in the absence of heavy metals, the MT promoter has low activity. Treatment with cadmium or zinc, however, increases promoter activity several fold. The effectiveness of this induction scheme was demonstrated in transgenic mice harboring a mutated sheep MT promoter linked to an ovine GH-cod-ing sequence. When maintained on water supplemented with zinc, these mice secreted excessive levels of GH and displayed a giant phenotype (Shanahan et al., 1989). Mice overexpressing GH have also been made with a transgene that utilizes the PEPCK promoter (McGrane et al., 1988). Transcription of the chimeric gene occurred after birth in the kidney, liver, and adipose tissue. This promoter is regulated by composition of the diet a diet high in carbohydrates reduces expression whereas a diet high in protein and low in carbohydrate stimulates...

Analysis of the Glycosylation Status of the GSTTagged Proteins

As discussed previously, both mammalian and insect cells have different glycosylation pathways. The two systems process glycoproteins into a common intermediate, the N-glycan precursor, after which the glycosylation processes differ. In mammalian cells, these precursors are elongated to produce complex products containing terminal carbohydrates (e.g. galactose and sialic acid). The same precursors are not elongated in insect cells but produced paucimannose structures (Man3GlcNAc2Fuc). However, the same procedures can be used to analyse the glycosylation properties of recombinant proteins produced in both cell lines. The protein of interest is digested with two common endoglycosid-ases peptideN-glycosidase F (PNGase F) and Endoglycosidase H (EndoH). PNGase F is able to remove the entire carbohydrate moiety from proteins modified by N-linked glycoslyation, and EndoH specifically removes high mannose chains. The electrophoretic migration pattern for the digested and undigested

Carbohydrate Modification Reactions

Because carbohydrates are so frequently used as substrates in kinetic studies of enzymes and metabolic pathways, we refer the reader to the following topics in Ro-byt's excellent account1 of chemical reactions used to modify carbohydrates formation of carbohydrate esters, pp. 77-81 sulfonic acid esters, pp. 81-83 ethers methyl, p. 83 trityl, pp. 83-84 benzyl, pp. 84-85 trialkyl silyl, p. 85 acetals and ketals, pp. 85-92 modifications at C-1 reduction of aldehydes and ketones, pp. 92-93 reduction of thioacetals, p. 93 oxidation, pp. 93-94 chain elongation, pp. 94-98 chain length reduction, pp. 98-99 substitution at the reducing carbon atom, pp. 99-103 formation of gycosides, pp. 103-105 formation of glycosidic linkages between monosaccharide residues, 105-108 modifications at C-2, pp. 108-113 modifications at C-3, pp. 113-120 modifications at C-4, pp. 121-124 modifications at C-5, pp. 125-128 modifications at C-6 in hexopy-ranoses, pp. 128-134.

In Situ Cofactor Regeneration in the Synthesis of an agal Pentasaccharide

Full-length bovine a1,3-GT is a type II membrane protein with a short N-terminal cytosolic domain, a membrane-spanning region, a stem, and a C-terminal catalytic region 46 . This recombinant technology has been successfully used in the synthesis of a variety of a-gal epitope derivatives as well as in an in situ cofactor regeneration system for the synthesis of pentasaccharide 50 . One of the most elegant yet simplistic ways to synthesize long-chain carbohydrates is via enzymes. To synthesize

Digestion and Absorption in the Stomach

Proteins are only partially digested in the stomach by the action of pepsin, while carbohydrates and fats are not digested at all by pepsin. (Digestion of starch begins in the mouth with the action of salivary amylase and continues for a time when the food enters the stomach, but amylase soon becomes inactivated by the strong acidity of gastric juice.) The complete digestion of food molecules occurs later, when chyme enters the small intestine.

Theory The Nature of Theory Building

Analyze theory-building how we will, we all must start in the middle. Our conceptual firsts are middle-sized, middle-distanced objects, and our introduction to them and to everything comes midway in the cultural evolution of the race. In assimilating this cultural fare we are little more aware of a distinction between report and invention, substance and style, cues and conceptualization, than we are of a distinction between the proteins and the carbohydrates of our material intake. Retrospectively we may distinguish the components of theory-building, as we distinguish the proteins and carbohydrates while subsisting on them. (Quine, 1960, pp. 4-6)

PTPs and Human Disease

Recent progress in establishing links between PTPs and human diseases, together with developments in understanding the function of several of these enzymes, has raised awareness of the PTPs in the pharmaceutical industry. The appreciation that PTPs have the ability to display specificity for substrates in vivo and, therefore, to exert effects that would be restricted to specific signaling pathways suggests that PTP-directed drugs would induce defined, rather than global, changes in cellular tyrosine phosphorylation. A spectacular example of the potential importance of PTPs in the development of novel therapeutic strategies was provided by the phenotype of the PTP1B knockout mouse. The mice show no obvious deleterious effects however, they display enhanced sensitivity to insulin and a resistance to obesity induced by a high-fat diet, which is accompanied by increased basal metabolic rate and total energy expenditure 59,80 . These effects have been defined in terms of a regulatory...

Nutritional Requirements

The body's energy requirements must be met by the caloric value of food to prevent catabolism of the body's own fat, carbohydrates, and protein.Additionally,food molecules particularly the essential amino acids and fatty acids are needed for replacement of molecules in the body that are continuously degraded. Vitamins and minerals do not directly provide energy but instead are required for diverse enzymatic reactions. The energy value of food is commonly measured in kilo-calories, which are also called big calories and spelled with a capital letter (Calories). One kilocalorie (kcal) is equal to 1,000 calories one calorie is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one cubic centimeter of water from 14.5 to 15.5 C. As described in chapter 5, the amount of energy released as heat when a quantity of food is combusted in vitro is equal to the amount of energy released within cells through the process of aerobic respiration. This is 4 kilocalories per gram for...

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