Laxatives

Patients who are undergoing treatment for cancer need particular attention given to the type of laxative used for constipation. It is important to provide immediate relief in the most gentle way, even if an aggressive approach is needed to relieve severe constipation and prevent more severe problems. The patient's total physical condition and the presence of bulky disease in the abdomen must be considered, as addressed in the following paragraphs. Patients undergoing chemotherapy that may cause...

B

Anderson technique. (A) Total radiation dose of 24.4 Gy to the primary tumor from the belly board fields (19.8 Gy from the reduced pelvic field and 4.6 Gy from the boost field). When the 30.6 Gy from the initial irradiation and the 24.4 Gy from the belly board fields are combined, the primary tumor receives a total radiation dose of 55 Gy (B). Note that the bladder is spared with the 3-field belly board technique. Seventy-one percent of the patients (n 65)...

Annette K Bisanz

Chapter Overview Introduction Steps to Effective Bowel Management Assessment and Diagnosis of Bowel Dysfunction 316 Normalization of the Bowel Establishment of Expectations for Bowel-Movement Frequency Development of a Bowel Management Program 318 Assessment of Outcomes Adjustment of Bowel Management Program to Achieve the Desired Outcome Requirements for Adequate Bowel Function 318 Components of an Effective Bowel Management Program 319 Fluid Fiber Food Medications to Offset Bowel Side Effects...

Christopher I Amos Carol H Bosken Amr S Soliman and Marsha L Frazier

Chapter Identifying Epidemiologic and Genetic Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer Cohort Studies Assessing Familiality and Segregation Analysis 70 Factors Associated with Risk for Colorectal Cancer 71 Inflammatory Bowel Disease Factors Related to a Western Calcium and Folate Supplementation Cigarette Smoking Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Hormone Replacement Therapy Genetic Factors Hypermethylation and Colorectal Cancer Gene-Gene Environmental Factors Related to Hereditary and Familial...

Approach and Materials for PVE

A percutaneous transhepatic approach has become the standard technique for PVE. The principal advantage of this technique is that it allows direct access to the portal venous branches of the lobe and segments to be embolized via an ipsilateral approach. This technique minimizes the risk of main trunk portal vein thrombosis and vascular injury to the portal venous branches supplying the future liver remnant. The side effects are minor and transient and include pain from the transhepatic approach...